A better connected city where active travel (walking, cycling, wheeling) is the first choice for getting from A to B, supported by high quality infrastructure which makes active travel easy, safe and accessible for everyone.
Brighton & Hove is a wonderful place. Its landscape, its people, its culture. A city with limitless potential and one which embraces active, inclusive and sustainable travel. The people who live, work and visit want better, cleaner ways to move and travel around the city and it’s something we’re determined to deliver.
The way we travel is at the heart of everything we do. It connects us to our communities, schools, businesses, healthcare and leisure; it connects us to each other. Walking and cycling are an integral part of many journeys in the city – whether on their own or combined with other ways of travelling such as public transport.
Travelling sustainably is more important than ever. We face a climate emergency and need to do everything we can to reduce toxic emissions and improve air quality in the city. Members of our Climate Assembly told us last year that we should be creating a car free city centre where people are prioritised over cars, as well as enabling cycling through a well-designed dedicated cycling network.
We know we can make changes. During the pandemic, there was a national increase in the number of people walking and cycling. We found ways of exploring and enjoying the space around our homes and new ways of working.
Our Local Cycling and Walking Infrastructure Plan (LCWIP) will be the foundation for creating a city which makes active travel easy, safe, and accessible.
Building an infrastructure that makes it easier for people to travel on foot or by cycle means we can increase the travel options people have. Walking and cycling needs to be a practical choice as well as a healthy and sustainable one.
Developing our walking and cycling network will have benefits which reach far beyond those that use it. By ensuring everyone has access to convenient, continuous and good quality routes, we improve the walking environment for everyone and level out disparities between different parts of the city. The new look Valley Gardens is a great example of how this can be done.
The plan will also complement the city’s excellent public transport network of buses, trains, taxis and BTN BikeShare bikes and be an integral part of our new Local Transport Plan and Low Traffic Neighbourhoods.
Working closely with our partners, through engagement with residents and businesses and by investing and innovating, we can create a city with walking and cycling at its core for the benefit of everyone.
Councillor Amy Heley,
Chair, Environment, Transport and Sustainability committee
Brighton & Hove City Council
Stage 1: determining scope
The development of this Local Cycling and Walking Infrastructure Plan (LCWIP) document represents an important step for Brighton & Hove – setting out our strategic ambitions for improvements to the active travel network in the city, covering the next ten years. A network of safe and convenient routes and quality infrastructure is vital to ensure that we enable people to use active travel more in the future.
What is active travel?
Active travel is simply travelling in ways that are physically active like walking, wheeling (wheelchair or mobility aid), cycling or scooting for all, or part of a journey. Where walking is stated in this document, please note this includes wheeling.
Why is active travel so important?
Investing in active travel improvements has a number of benefits. Everyone is a pedestrian at some point in their journey, whether wheeling from a disabled parking space to the shops or walking to the bus stop; therefore improved accessibility of walking routes affects everyone. We know that people are concerned about road danger and cycle safety . We know that many local residents rate their local pavement conditions as poor . By improving active travel facilities we can create healthier neighbourhoods where people want to walk and cycle, which helps to improve physical and mental wellbeing as well as create safer communities.
We are facing 3 national and global challenges
The 3 challenges are:
- obesity and inactivity
- response to Covid-19
- climate and biodiversity emergency
An investment in active travel can help not only address these three challenges and more. This investment would also aid air quality, support sustainable development and economic growth and promote low transport costs. In addition, it will help in developing and supporting vibrant neighbourhoods and local centres.
You can find more information in the Active Travel Fund consultation about:
- concerns over road safety on page 27
- concerns over cycle safety on pages 22, 35 to 38, 45 to 49, 54 to 58 and 63 to 67
- local pavement conditions on pages 25 to 27
Why invest in active travel?
- Physical inactivity is responsible for one in six UK deaths (equal to smoking) and is estimated to cost the UK £7.4 billion annually (including £0.9 billion to the NHS alone)
- More than half of the people killed or seriously injured on the city’s roads are pedestrians or cyclists (according to Sussex Safer Roads Partnership data portal, average data for Killed & Seriously Injured (KSI) road casualties from 2015-2019)
- Transport represents about a third of CO2 emissions nationally, mainly from road transport
- There is strong evidence that pedestrians spend more than people arriving by car
- Regular moderate physical activity can significantly reduce chances of developing conditions such as diabetes, heart disease and dementia
What is an LCWIP?
- Strategic document which is evidence-based
- Considers infrastructure only - wider supporting improvements will be addressed in the Local Transport Plan 5 document and other plans and strategies
- Sets out proposed areas and networks for walking and cycling improvements in the city
- Walking network focuses on key areas for improvement rather than showing the proposed walking network in its entirety
- Shows routes / areas where there is the greatest potential for supporting and increasing levels of walking and cycling
- Broadly considers where proposed improvements should be located, but does not include detail
- Opens up future funding opportunities from various sources
- This LCWIP covers the city of Brighton & Hove and while the document takes into account links with neighbouring areas, these areas are covered by separate LCWIP documents produced by other local authorities
- An evolving document that will be updated regularly
- Covers a 10-year period (2022 – 2032
Why is an LCWIP needed?
The LCWIP will assist in meeting local and national targets and commitments including:
|Target or commitment||Context|
|Cycling and walking will be the first choice for many journeys with half of all journeys in towns and cities being cycled or walked by 2030||Gear Change – national target|
|Brighton & Hove will be net carbon neutral by 2030||2030 Carbon Neutral Programme – local target|
|To double cycling levels by 2025, increase walking activity, reduce the rate of cyclists killed or seriously injured (KSI), and increase the percentage of school children walking to school||Cycling & Walking Investment Strategy (CWIS) national targets|
|To help achieve safe, healthy and welcoming streets and neighbourhoods; an accessible city with a transport network that everyone can use; improved air quality, and reduced carbon emissions||LTP5, BHCC local key outcomes|
|To support (across the South East) an increase in the length of separated cycleways and mode share of trips undertaken by foot and cycle, a reduction in NOx (nitrogen oxides), SOx (sulphur oxides) and particulate pollution levels in urban areas, and a reduction in non-renewable energy consumed by transport||Transport Strategy, TfSE, regional key performance indicators|
|To support more people to travel actively, and walking and cycling to be prioritised in order to benefit physical and mental health||Joint Health and Wellbeing Strategy, BHCC/NHS, local key areas for action|
|To promote and facilitate the use of low and zero emission vehicles||LTP5, BHCC local priority area and principle|
How do we support and increase active travel levels in the city?
- A comprehensive network of walking and cycling routes
- Behaviour change campaigns to show the benefits of walking and cycling
- Linking in with other ways to travel, particularly bus and train
- Providing safe and secure cycle parking at origins and destinations
- More priority for pedestrians
- Support for travelling actively to destinations eg school and work
- Information and maps to inform how people travel
- Speed reduction
- BTN BikeShare
- Road safety campaigns for safe walking, cycling and driving
- Training for active travel eg Bikeability cycle training in schools
Key outputs from the LCWIP process are:
- Technical report
- Cycling network map
- Walking network maps
- Programme of cycling routes to take forward in short, medium and long term
- Programme of walking areas and routes to take forward in short, medium and long term
How we have developed the LCWIP
This draft LCWIP has been developed by following the process set out in the Department for Transport’s Local Cycling and Walking Infrastructure Plans – Technical Guidance (2017), in line with the local transport objectives, priorities and vision set out in the emerging LTP5.
Stage 1: determining scope
- Geographical scope
- Resources needed to deliver the plan
- Governance arrangements
- Stakeholder engagement approach
Stage 2: gathering information
- Review of local, regional and national policies to understand key linkages
- Collating information and data on the existing walking and cycling network and trips
- Identifying trip origins and destinations (existing and planned)
Stage 3 and 4: network planning for cycling and walking
- Mapping trip origin and destination points and trip generators
- Identifying barriers to movement
- Identifying desire lines for cycling journeys
- Auditing of cycling routes to understand existing provision and potential for future improvement
- Identifying walking areas and routes for improvement
Stage 5: prioritising improvements
- Developing timescales for delivery over short, medium and long term
- High-level prioritisation: prioritising improvements considering effectiveness, cost and deliverability
Stage 6: integration and application
- Signoff of the document
- Continued integration within policies, application for funding bids
- Regular updating of the document
Stakeholder engagement has been a key element of the draft LCWIP development.
A range of stakeholders were involved in the process, including those representing active travel interest groups, disability groups, older and younger people, local interest groups (eg residents’ associations), transport providers, ward councillors and neighbouring local authorities.
The engagement undertaken and the methods used were as follows:
|Stage of LCWIP||Stakeholder engagement undertaken||Methods|
|Gathering information||Engagement with local and strategic stakeholders to understand key issues on the walking and cycling network and suggestions for improvement||Stakeholder workshops (strategic stakeholders), stakeholder survey / feedback received via email (local stakeholders)|
|Network planning for cycling and walking||Engagement with local and strategic stakeholders to review the emerging and draft network||Stakeholder workshops (strategic stakeholders), stakeholder survey / feedback received via email (local stakeholders)|
|Prioritising improvements||Engagement with strategic stakeholders to review draft prioritisation of improvements, prior to draft document going to public consultation||Strategic stakeholder workshops|
LCWIP stakeholder engagement
A Member Working Group is in place for the LCWIP development; this cross-party group of councillors has provided oversight to the development of the LCWIP document.
This engagement has helped develop the draft LCWIP document to date. The council is now seeking input from the wider public before developing a final LCWIP document which will then be reviewed and considered by the council’s Environment, Transport and Sustainability committee.
Stage 2: gathering information
Policy background - national
Cycling and Walking Investment Strategy (CWIS)
Department for Transport (DfT), 2017
- make cycling and walking the natural choices for shorter journeys, or as part of a longer journey
- double cycling levels by 2025
- increase walking activity
- reduce the number of cyclists killed or seriously injured (KSI)
- increase the percentage of school children walking to school
Through the CWIS, local authorities are strongly encouraged by the DfT to prepare LCWIPs in order to take a more strategic approach to planning walking and cycling networks.
It is noted in the DfT’s LCWIP Technical Guidance that ‘While the preparation of LCWIPs is non-mandatory, local authorities who have plans will be well placed to make the case for future investment.’’
Gear Change is a bold vision for cycling and walking, which sets out the government’s ambition to see a step-change in cycling and walking in the coming years.
Local Transport Note 1/20 (LTN1/20)
Along with technical guidance Local Transport Note 1/20 (LTN1/20), Gear Change is bold in its vision for improving infrastructure for cycling in order to encourage many more journeys by active modes. The document represents a step-change in the national approach to encouraging and supporting cycling via provision of high quality, fit for purpose routes.
Gear Change: One Year On
Gear Change’s themes are:
- better streets for cycling and people
- putting cycling and walking at the heart of transport, place-making, and health policy
- empowering and encouraging local authorities to make improvements for active travel
- enabling people to cycle and protect them when they cycle
The vision also announces the creation of a new national body, Active Travel England, to oversee scheme implementation and funding, inspect scheme delivery, as well as review planning applications.
In 2021 the government published Gear Change: One Year On, which highlights some of the achievements since its original publication, as well as new and continuing commitments for supporting cycling amid the ever-present need for keeping towns and cities moving.
These new commitments include:
- changes to statutory network management guidance for local authorities
- further funding and opportunities for walking and cycling projects
- changes to the Highway Code to support pedestrians and cyclists
- further powers of traffic enforcement for local authorities
This new strategy sets out how government will address the decarbonisation of transport across all modes. A key element of this is increasing levels of walking and cycling, with the delivery of a world-class cycling and walking network in England by 2040.
Future of Mobility: Urban Strategy
The government’s Future of Mobility programme starts with this urban strategy, setting out the principles which will guide our approach to emerging mobility technologies and services. One of the key principles is that ‘Walking, cycling and active travel must remain the best options for short urban journeys’
Clean Air Strategy
This sets out how government intends to tackle all sources of air pollution, making our air healthier to breathe, protecting nature and boosting the economy by creating better places. It notes that air quality is the largest environmental health risk in the UK, shortening lives and contributing to chronic illness.
Inclusive Transport Strategy
This strategy will help deliver the government’s manifesto commitment of creating a transport system offering equal access for disabled people by 2030, as well as getting a million more disabled people into work by 2027. This strategy is very relevant for the LCWIP development as walking and cycling are key modes not only in themselves but for multi-modal journeys; as well as needing to ensure the accessibility and inclusivity of schemes.
Key regional policy linkages for LCWIP
Policy background – regional
Transport for the South East, 2020
Transport for the South East (TfSE) is an emerging Sub-national Transport Body (STB), a partnership of 16 local authorities (including Brighton & Hove City Council), five Local Enterprise Partnerships (LEPs) plus representatives of district and borough authorities, protected landscapes and national delivery agencies.
TfSE’s Transport Strategy (2020) aims to grow the economy of the South East by delivering a safe, sustainable, and integrated transport system that makes the South East more productive and competitive, improves the quality of life for all residents, and protects and enhances its natural and built environment. Its ambition is to transform the quality of transport and door-to-door journeys for the South East’s residents, businesses and visitors. The strategy is moving from a traditional ‘predict and provide’ approach, to one of actively choosing a preferred future and setting out a plan of how we can get there together.
The key principles of the strategy are:
- Supporting sustainable economic growth, but not at any cost
- Protecting the environment
- Creating great places to live
- Putting people first
- Planning regionally for the short, medium and long term
- Planning for successful places
- Putting the user at the heart of the transport system
- Planning regionally for the short, medium and long-term
These principles are then applied to six journey types: radial, orbital & coastal, inter-urban, local, journeys to international gateways and freight and journeys in the future.
Due to the scale of governance and responsibilities for TfSE, walking and cycling do not feature heavily in the strategy, however they will be key in many of the identified schemes / funding streams, particularly for interchange and multi-modal journeys.
Strategic Economic Plan (SEP) – Gatwick 360°
Coast to Capital LEP, 2018
This plan recognises Gatwick Airport as the geographical and economic heart of the area and sets out eight economic priorities:
- deliver prosperous urban centres
- develop business infrastructure and support
- invest in sustainable growth
- create skills for the future
- pioneer innovation in core strengths
- promote better transport
- improve digital network capability
- build a strong national and international profile
Based on the LEP’s priorities, a number of projects in the city have secured significant funding from the LEP such as Valley Gardens and BTN BikeShare.
Key regional policy linkages for LCWIP
Policy background - local
The Local Cycling and Walking Infrastructure Plan (LCWIP) is one of a number of plans which will assist in delivering the vision, key outcomes and principles of the emerging fifth Local Transport Plan (LTP5), which were approved by the council’s Environment, Transport and Sustainability committee in June 2021. LTP5 will cover all modes of transport, and ways to deliver it will include infrastructure as well as other measures eg behaviour change.
The 2030 transport vision for the city is for ‘Better connected residents, businesses and visitors, for an improved quality of life in a healthy, inclusive and carbon neutral city.’
The LCWIP aligns with the six key LTP5 outcomes:
- a sustainable, strong and fair economy
- safe, healthy and welcoming streets and neighbourhoods
- an accessible city with a transport network that everyone can use
- improved air quality to safeguard the health of our communities
- reduced carbon emissions to protect our global environment
- travel that respects our local environment
The following key principles will inform the development of the LTP5 priority areas:
- reduce the need to travel – avoiding or reducing the frequency and length of trips we make by vehicles
- shift how people travel – prioritising walking and cycling for shorter journeys, and public transport for longer journeys
- clean vehicle travel – vehicle travel to be low or zero emission, powered by renewable energy sources
Of these, the LCWIP will assist principally in shifting how people travel for short journeys in the city. Delivering an improved network of routes and areas for active travel will support the aims of the proposed LTP5 priority areas for interventions, including to:
- create an inclusive and integrated transport system
- reduce car use
- develop streets and places that encourage and enable active travel
- increase public transport use
In this LCWIP we set out a number of themes for active travel improvement projects which align with or support a number of LTP5’s key outcomes and proposed priority areas.
Other key strategic documents that the LCWIP will support include:
Rights of Way Improvement Plan (ROWIP)
The ROWIP identifies changes that will improve rights of way and access provision for walkers, cyclists, horse riders and those with mobility issues.
The ROWIP states the vision for rights of way in Brighton & Hove as:
‘A city where people with diverse access needs have the opportunity to use a well maintained and joined up public Rights of Way network, connected to the varied green and blue spaces around the city: the seafront, city parks and gardens, open spaces on the urban fringe and the South Downs National Park.’
Economic Strategy and Visitor Economy Strategy
Ensuring a liveable, welcoming city streetscape is important in ensuring continued growth of the economy including the visitor economy. One of the five key themes for action in the Economic Strategy is ‘a sustainable city’.
The development of a five-year Destination Management Plan will support the visitor strategy, and sustainable travel and movement after arrival in the city will play a key role. Good connections between venues and all the city’s facilities are required and will be delivered through good transport and public realm design.
Joint Health & Wellbeing Strategy
This sets out the vision that ‘Everyone in Brighton & Hove will have the best opportunity to live a healthy, happy and fulfilling life.’
The principles to guide the delivery of the strategy include partnership and collaboration, reducing health inequalities, engagement and involvement and keeping people safe.
City Plan Part One and City Plan Part Two
BHCC, 2016 and 2020
The City Plan sets out the Development Plan framework for the city. It will help shape the future of the city and plays an important role in ensuring that other citywide plans and strategies achieve their objectives.
Strategic Objective 11 (SO11) is to ‘Provide an integrated, safe and sustainable transport system to improve air quality, reduce congestion, reduce noise and promote active travel.
Public Space, Public Life study
This work for the council was led by Gehl Architects and its principles and toolkit were endorsed in 2007. The study aimed to enhance the public realm and make the city become more legible for everyone, and included an audit of the quality of the public realm and recommendations for future improvements. This resulted in recommendations including the creation of links with special identity and character, improvements to conditions for walking and cycling in the city, designing a high-quality city for people and improving safety.
2030 Carbon Neutral Programme (CNP)
The council declared a climate and biodiversity emergency in December 2018 and has committed to becoming carbon neutral by 2030. This was a demonstration of the city’s commitment to tackling climate change. The 2030 CNP will oversee the development and then delivery of a co-ordinated programme of projects which aim to tackle climate change and transition the city to become carbon neutral. Planning for future growth of walking and cycling, including by developing the LCWIP, is a key focus of actions from the CNP.
The city’s Air Quality Action Plan, Bus Service Improvement Plan and Low Traffic Neighbourhood Strategy documents are also in development, which the LCWIP will have close links with and will assist in delivering objectives from these documents.
Key local policy linkages for LCWIP
These themes for active travel improvement projects will steer the direction of how we carry out projects in the city and ensure active travel will be at the heart of project development and delivery, in line with our city-wide principles, objectives and outcomes through the Local Transport Plan 5.
Local Transport Plan 5
|Local Transport Plan 5
key outcome or priority area
Key outcome: An accessible city with a transport network that everyone can use
Priority area: Creating an inclusive and integrated transport system
Access for all:
Active travel will be reviewed and improved as part of all transport projects
Key outcomes: Safe, healthy and welcoming streets and neighbourhoods
Priority area: Developing streets and places that encourage and enable active
|A clear, coherent network that is promoted widely:
|Priority area: Promoting and using technology to reduce and manage travel
LCWIP themes and integration with LTP5
Existing context and challenges
Existing travel context
Active travel represents about a quarter of journeys to work in the city. Active travel also forms an important element of journeys by other means of travel, particularly bus and train. The city has higher than average bus use compared to nationally (outside London) due to the comprehensive network of high-quality services in place in the city. Travel to work data shows the need for increasing active travel for short journeys or as part of longer journeys, and the importance of reducing private vehicle use in order to meet both local and national targets.
Travel to work – 2011 census:
- by car or van (driver or passenger) – 41%
- on foot – 22%
- by bus, minibus or coach – 14%
- by train – 10%
- by bike – 5%
Car ownership in the city is low compared to nationally. Over a third of households don’t own a car or have access to one.
In terms of travel for all purposes, data collected by the DfT shows that around a quarter of adults in Brighton & Hove cycle at least once a month; and 84% of adults in Brighton & Hove walk at least once a week. While this is encouraging, in order to meet our local and national targets and commitments, we need to increase these levels by providing high-quality facilities in the city where people want to walk and cycle, and crucially where they feel safe in doing so.
Data from the National Travel Attitudes Survey shows the increased importance of active travel since the pandemic. When interviewed between May and September 2020, 34% of cyclists reported to cycle more and 38% of those who walk as a means of transport reported to walk more than before the outbreak of the coronavirus.
In terms of traffic levels in the city, annual average daily traffic counts on key inner routes into the city show a reduction in traffic of 23% between 2019 and 2020 (Brighton & Hove City Council, Key Performance Indicators for traffic on key inner routes into the city, 2019-2020). This is consistent with recent, national traffic flow trends which show a sharp decline in traffic levels across 2020.
Data from the National Highways and Transport Public Satisfaction Survey (NHT Survey) shows falling satisfaction levels for traffic levels and congestion. (National highways and Transport Public Satisfaction Survey (NHT Survey) 2020).
It is therefore critical that we continue to invest in and plan for a comprehensive network to make active travel safe, accessible and the first choice, especially for short journeys in the city in order to free up roadspace and ease congestion. It is important that the national rise in active travel for local journeys seen since the Covid-19 pandemic is adequately catered for in terms of infrastructure to support these journeys longer term.
• Over a third of households in the city don’t own a car (or have one available)
• 46 million bus journeys a year in the city
• More than half of residents commute to work by foot, cycle or public transport
• 13,500 blue badge holders in the city
• More than half of children walk, scoot or cycle to primary and secondary schools
• 40km of designated (permanent) cycle routes including the National Cycle Network
All figures are from before COVID-19
The city’s current active travel network is illustrated on the council’s cycling map, which includes bridleways. This network will be further developed through the LCWIP.
Extensive mapping and auditing have taken place and been combined with stakeholder engagement feedback to help identify current issues and challenges for infrastructure.
Brighton & Hove is a compact city and while this offers opportunities for active journeys, it also brings challenges such as limited space and challenging geography, such as narrow streets and hills.
Current challenges for encouraging cycling
- Cycle network is not complete or always connecting people to places they want to go
- Cyclists can be left vulnerable where cycle lanes end, particularly at pinch points or difficult junctions
- Barriers of main roads and railways
- Pedestrian and cycle conflict on shared paths (perceived and actual)
- Many key routes in the city do not meet national cycle design standards
- Distances and challenging geography
- Lack of secure residential cycle parking
- Fitness and ability to ride a cycle
Current challenges for encouraging walking
- Varying quality of pavement surface
- Pavement obstructions and pavement parking
- Crossings aren’t always where people need them and higher priority is needed for pedestrians when crossing roads, in particular side roads
- Bollards and guard railings impact on available space and quality of routes
- Need for more seating and greening (trees / planting) on routes
- Distances and challenging geography
Evidence base for LCWIP network
Developing an active travel network
The LCWIP aims to connect people to places by active travel, making it easy and safe to do so. It plans strategically for whole routes in order to overcome problems that can arise where infrastructure is incomplete.
Clustering of origin and destination points corridors
- Origins and destinations have been mapped and clusters of these have been identified
- Desire line corridors have then been identified between these
- Journeys can also link into these corridors from neighbouring areas
From DfT Local Cycling and Walking Plans Technical Guidance (2017) page 17
Links between strategic and local networks for both walking and cycling
- Strategic corridors have been identified for the cycling network, these will also provide benefits walking
- Area-based treatments and routes have been identified for walking – these provide opportunities for improvements for those travelling on foot and by bike, which also link with the strategic corridors
Origins and destinations (existing and planned) to be connected by the LCWIP:
Residential origins and:
- leisure and attractions
- employment areas
- city centre
- local centres
- district centres
- educational facilities
- transport interchanges
The LCWIP needs to support journeys to and from where people want to travel. It also needs to prioritise routes and areas for improvement based on where investment will be best placed and where the most uptake and benefit can be realised in future, therefore assisting in meeting the various national and local targets and commitments.
What do we mean by a strategic cycling network?
- A network which supports everyday journeys by cycle, now and in future, through high-quality infrastructure
- Linking residential areas to key destinations eg workplaces, retail, healthcare
- Linking with neighbouring areas and routes
Gathering information to develop the network
Various data and information have been gathered and mapped as part of the LCWIP process, to identify and understand the current network, its issues and potential for change. This helps understand the need for supporting active travel in the city through a network of infrastructure. Further details are available in the Technical Report - Available on request from email@example.com.
Data reviewed and analysed in developing the LCWIP network included:
- 2011 Census data (such as travel to work)
- Local and national traffic counts
- Road Traffic Collision data
- Previous consultations where improvements were proposed
- Previous area studies where issues were reviewed, and potential solutions proposed
- Locations of trip generators (origins and destinations)
- Perceptions of existing facilities.
Initial mapping work showed origin – destination analysis for cycling, which helped form the network.
Stakeholder engagement was undertaken to gather information from local users of the active travel network and to both supplement and challenge the data gathered.
The first set of stakeholder engagement (May – June 2020) involved workshops, supported by a survey asking stakeholders to identify on maps where there were issues / suggestions for active travel in the city. This, in conjunction with the data, helped inform the development of the emerging networks.
The draft emerging networks were then presented to stakeholders in autumn 2020 where comments were invited (via workshops and a survey) on the network and whether it met the needs of stakeholders and addressed issues / suggestions raised previously. Feedback received at this stage was very valuable in determining how to take the networks forward in the LCWIP development.
Stage 3 and 4: Network planning for cycling and walking
Developing the LCWIP network
The network has been split by walking and cycling in order to plan for the different types of journey. For example cycling journeys are generally longer in distance than walking and needing more of a route-based focus; and walking journeys generally being shorter (on their own or part of a longer journey including other forms of transport), needing more of an area-based focus. However, the walking and cycling networks and areas for improvement have been developed in conjunction with each other. This is so that when improvements are taken forward for delivery, detailed consideration of all forms of transport, including interaction with public transport and other motor vehicles, will take place, improvements will not necessarily be limited to just walking and cycling.
What is required?
To plan the strategic cycle network, the following tasks have been undertaken:
- identifying and clustering trip origin and destination points
- establishing desire lines for cycle movement
- planning the network and identifying improvements
Why is it needed?
In order to enable strategic planning for cycle routes, it is necessary to establish desire lines for where people want and need to travel to and from – both now and in the future. These desire lines are then compared with the road network and routes can be planned from this by considering in more detail at what exactly needs improving on these routes. By providing high quality infrastructure on these key routes, it is more likely to increase the levels of active travel in the city. We know that a key reason some people don’t cycle is because they’re concerned about safety. Benefits of increased levels of cycling include better physical and mental health for residents, better air quality and reduced congestion.
What have we done for Brighton & Hove?
The process of developing the cycle network for the city started with an origin and destination analysis, including existing and planned locations where people are currently travelling to and from and will need to in future. Origins and destinations across the city were mapped and connected in a straight-line analysis. Routes were then mapped to the road network and were reviewed to ensure the most appropriate routes were taken to cater for the desire lines for journeys where people want to go. This initial map set out the strategic cycling network, which then needed prioritisation in order to determine the routes where investment will bring the greatest benefits and therefore need developing earlier than others.
An early prioritisation exercise was therefore undertaken, with the following criteria used to determine which routes were highest priority:
- high deprivation levels (Indices of Multiple Deprivation data)
- improving active travel and accessibility to schools and workplaces (using Propensity to Cycle Tool (PCT) data)
- poor Air Quality (using Air Quality Management Area (AQMA) locations)
- economic factors (key employment, town and local centres)
- areas of development (development allocations)
These datasets were mapped and routes across the city were scored based on the above criteria. The outputs from this exercise are detailed in the Technical Report and the summary of this analysis is the prioritised network as shown below. Within the cycle network map, the top 17 priority strategic routes are shown in pink, with the remaining strategic routes in blue and key existing recreational routes in yellow. The routes are also shown below, where some routes have been split into sections for logical delivery.
This first LCWIP document represents key routes for improvement at this point in time but there will be further routes that will need investigation and development as the LCWIP evolves.
An important consideration for cycling infrastructure is not only the network itself but also cycle parking at origins, destinations and interchanges. The council installs cycle parking as part of its Controlled Parking Zones and is also embarking on a project to install secure residential cycle hangars, background analysis to support this is included in the Technical Report.
Network plan for cycling improvements
|Route ID||Route name|
|2||North Street and Dyke Road|
|5||Eastern Road / Edward Street|
|6||A259 – WSCC boundary to Madeira Drive|
|7||Chesham Road, St George’s Road, Bristol Road & St James’s Street|
|8||Buckingham Place, Terminus Road, Queens Road & West Street|
|9||A259 – Marine Parade & Marine Drive|
|10||New Church Road, Church Road & Western Road|
|11||Queens Park Road|
|12||Old Shoreham Road / New England Road / Viaduct Road / Upper Lewes Road|
|14||Upper Hollingdean Road|
|16||Sackville Road / Nevill Road|
|19||Stanford Avenue & Beaconsfield Road|
|20||Trafalgar Road, Locks Hill, Southdown Road & Croft Drive|
|21||Elm Grove and Warren Road|
|22||Argyle Road and Campbell Road|
|23||Boundary Road, Hangleton Road, and King George VI Avenue|
|24||Hangleton Way and Downland Drive|
|25||Vernon Terrace & Montpelier Road|
|27||Davigdor Road and Cromwell Road|
|29||Basin Road South|
|33||Grand Avenue and The Drive|
|34||Fox Way and Hangleton Lane|
|35||The Upper Drive|
|36||Mile Oak Road and High Street|
|37||Preston Drove and Millers Road|
|38||Rottingdean High Street and Falmer Road|
|39||Barcombe Place & Lucraft Road|
An approach to developing the walking network was developed in line with stakeholders in order to meet the local requirements of the city. This involved looking not just at linear walking routes to local centres but also determining potential for area-based approaches across the city.
Why it's needed
When planning strategically for walking, it is important to understand that there are many factors influencing and affecting walking. Area-based approaches to walking are appropriate for Brighton & Hove rather than simply looking at linear walking routes to and from local centres. It is also important to recognise that while every street is part of the overall walking network, the approach for the LCWIP is to identify routes and areas most in need of improvement over the next ten years. Taking an area-based approach ensures that broader benefits can be obtained for measures put in place.
What we have done for Brighton & Hove
A methodology has been developed to identify locations for walking improvements, based on both area-based treatments and linear routes. These will complement any improvements for walking as part of interventions proposed for the strategic cycle network – when taking forward improvements, it will not just be about considering one way of travelling.
The purpose of an area-based treatment is to improve the environment for active travel through a reduction of through-traffic. This discourages rat-running by reducing through-traffic, as it is re-routed to more appropriate roads. This results in a safer and more pleasant area for local residents. Although these areas have been identified through a process looking at walking, they will also provide an opportunity to enable cyclists to start or continue their journeys to and from the strategic cycle network.
Area-based treatments have been identified in areas within the city which surround, and provide access to, an education facility and/or a train station. The areas themselves have been determined by identifying severance points such as major roads and railway lines.
To complement the area-based treatments and the strategic cycle network, additional linear routes have been identified which focus on key walking routes, including:
Funnel routes are high pedestrian footfall areas where people are funnelled into limited space on a route eg over a bridge or railway line
Key corridors that are likely to have significant footfall, or the potential for significant footfall, such as routes to key destinations including an education facility or a train station, or along a key street to a shopping area or local centre
We have produced two maps for walking. These highlight the strategic areas and routes that can assist in creating liveable, healthy communities where active travel can become the first choice for all or part of a journey for a significant number of people. Areas and routes are described in further detail below.
Prioritisation for areas of the city to be taken forward for improvements is also shown below, subject to funding and further design and consultation.
Areas for walking improvements
|Route ID||Route name|
|5||West Blatchington - schools|
|6||Hove Park and Mill View|
|7||West Blatchington and Hangleton|
|11||Kemptown, hospital and Whitehawk Hill|
|16||London Road north|
|17||Moulsecoomb south and Bear Road|
|19||West of city centre|
|20||Hove Junior School and cricket ground|
|21||St Andrews Church|
|22||Hove station south|
|23||Hove station north|
|25||Varndean and Balfour|
|29||Westdene and Withdean|
|30||Preston Park east|
|31||Preston Park west|
|33||Rottingdean and Saltdean|
Routes for walking improvements
|Route ID||Route name|
|B||Station Approach (Fishersgate)|
|C||Station Road (Portslade)|
|E||Amherst Crescent and Old Shoreham Road|
|K||Dyke Road Drive|
|L||Upper North Street|
|W||Lower Rock Gardens|
|X||Upper Bedford Street|
|Y||Queensdown School Road|
|CC||B206 Roedean Road|
Delivery of the network
The LCWIP sets out strategic networks of routes and areas for improvement.
The detail of specific improvements is not considered at this stage. This will be developed once routes are taken forward for delivery, when there will be opportunity for preliminary and detailed design, which will include stakeholder engagement and public consultation.
For the LCWIP network, the focus is on strategic routes and areas for improvement rather than the maps showing the entire walking and cycling networks for the city: every street is recognised as being part of the overall walking and cycling network.
For all the suggested routes and areas for improvement, there are benefits for both walking and cycling.
When schemes are taken forward for delivery, detailed consideration of all forms of transport, including interaction with public transport and other motor vehicles, will take place, with improvements not necessarily limited to just walking and cycling. For example:
- when a strategic cycle route is taken forward for further design, improvements could include new pedestrian crossings (or improvements to existing ones), and pavement widening
- when a prioritised walking area is taken forward for further design, this could include area-based treatments such as reducing speed limits in the area, restricting through-traffic and potentially a Low-Traffic Neighbourhood
For both of these examples, all improvements will benefit people travelling on foot and by cycle, including journeys using other forms of transport eg parking for disabled people or walking to the bus stop. They may also include improved access to train stations, introduction of wayfinding signs, cycle parking, street furniture (eg benches) and greening.
Stage 5: Prioritising improvements
Cycling route prioritisation
The pre-prioritisation criteria for cycling routes, noted in the previous section, formed the basis for identifying the strategic network including the top 17 priority routes. From this, the draft network was then discussed with stakeholders and refined further. Further information on this process can be found in the Technical Report.
The table shows the prioritisation for improvements needed for the top 17 cycling routes. Some have been split into smaller sections for delivery, with wider route references noted.
- Short: less than 3 years
- Medium: less than 5 years
- Long: More than 5 years
|Scheme||Strategic route reference||Priority (short, medium or long term)|
|Dyke Road - Seven Dials to The Upper Drive||2b||Medium|
|Dyke Road - The Upper Drive to A27||2c||Medium|
|Lewes Road (south)||3a||Medium|
|Lewes Road (north)||3b||Medium|
|A23 (Argyle Road to Patcham Roundabout)||4a||Short|
|A23 (A259 to Marlborough Place)||4b||Short|
|A23 (Valley Gardens to Argyle Road)||4c||Medium|
|Eastern Road / Edward Street||5||Long|
|A259 (Wharf Road to Palace Pier)||6b||Short|
|A259 (western border to Wharf Road)||6c||Medium|
|Chesham Road, St George's Road, Bristol Road and St James's Street||7||Long|
|Buckingham Place / Terminus Road / Queens Road / West Street||8||Medium|
|A259 (Marine Parade)||9a||Short|
|A259 (Marine Drive)||9b||Short|
|Western Road (Dyke Road to Montpelier Road)||10a||Short|
|New Church Road / Church Road / Western Road||10b||Medium|
|Queens Park Road||11||Long|
|Old Shoreham Road (Hangleton Road to Dyke Road)||12a||Medium|
|Old Shoreham Road (east of Dyke Road) / New England Road / Viaduct Road / Upper Lewes Road||12b||Long|
|Old Shoreham Road (western border to Hangleton Road)||12c||Long|
|Ditchling Road (north)||13a||Short|
|Ditchling Road (south)||13b||Long|
|Upper Hollingdean Road||14||Long|
The remaining strategic cycling routes are shown below. These have also been split into sections for delivery, with wider route references noted, however, the LCWIP is an evolving document and will be reviewed and updated over time. It will also help to guide investment. Lower priority schemes may be brought forward sooner if funding becomes available or there is overlap with other schemes such as road or pavement maintenance or proposals linked to development.
|Scheme||Strategic route reference|
Springfield Road (Preston Road to
Springfield Road (Beaconsfield Road
to Ditchling Road)
Stanford Avenue and Beaconsfield
Trafalgar Road, Locks Hill,
Southdown Road and Croft Drive
|Elm Grove and Warren Road||21|
|Argyle Road (A23 to Campbell Road)||22|
Argyle Road and Campbell Road
(rest of area)
Boundary Road, Hangleton Road and
King George VI Avenue
|Hangleton Way and Downland Drive||24|
|Vernon Terrace and Montpelier Road||25|
|Davigdor Road and Cromwell Road||27|
|Basin Road South||29|
|Grand Avenue and The Drive||33|
Fox Way and Hangleton
|The Upper Drive||35|
Mile Oak Road and High
Preston Drove and Millers
Rottingdean High Street and
Barcombe Place and Lucraft
Prioritisation of walking areas and routes
In order to establish where walking improvements are most required, it was important to identify neighbourhoods across the city which have the greatest need for improvements, and where the improvements would have the greatest benefit.
To determine areas with the most need for walking improvements, we used the following criteria and datasets.
Areas with the most need:
- areas with high deprivation (from the Indices of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) (2019))
- areas with an elderly population (defined as 75 and over and taken from the 2011 census)
- areas with a young population (defined as under 18 and taken from the 2011 census)
- areas with a high number of pedestrian and cycle collisions (October 2017 to September 2020, Sussex Safer Roads Partnership)
Areas that would most benefit:
To determine areas that would benefit the most from walking improvements, we reviewed the following sources of information.
- location of education facilities (including primary, secondary, colleges and universities)
- strategic development sites
- local destination locations, such as local shopping centres
- location of leisure facilities (including leisure walking routes) and green spaces
- Air Quality Management Areas (AQMAs)
The overall prioritisation for walking (for area-based improvements as well as routes), is shown below. The top priority areas for walking, and associated area-based treatments and routes, are also shown. This prioritisation was undertaken initially based on the criteria above, which helped inform the areas and routes for improvement within these areas.
Prioritised list of neighbourhood areas for walking improvements
Figure 19: Walking prioritisation by neighbourhood
|1||East Brighton / Whitehawk||11 – Kemp house Hospital & Whitehawk Hill||Z – Manor Hill: north-south connection between Freshfield Road area and Whitehawk|
|12 - Whitehawk||FF – racecourse link|
|2||Moulsecoomb||1 – East Moulsecoomb||BB – Ashurst Road (across railway)|
|3||Portslade||10 - Fishersgate||B – connection to Fishersgate station|
|4||Knoll / West Blatchington||6 – Hove Park & Mill View||D – Nevill Avenue|
|E – Link to Aldrington station|
|5||Hangleton||7 – West Blatchington & Hangleton|
|6||Mile Oak & Portslade Village||10 – Portslade||A – Chalky Road (access to schools)|
|11 – Mile Oak|
|7||Hollingdean||2 – Hollingdean||U – Hollingdean Road|
|Y – Moulsecoomb (connection across railway)|
|8||Woodingdean||3 - Woodingdean|
|9||West Hove||C – Station Road|
|10||West Blatchington - schools||5 – West Blatchington - schools|
|East Brighton / Whitehawk||1|
|Knoll / West Blatchington||4|
|Mile Oak and Portslade Village||6|
|West Blatchington - schools||10|
|Wilbury & West Blatchington||11|
|Hanover & Elm Grove||12|
|Kemptown & Black Rock||13|
|London Road station||15|
|Hove and Wilbury||22|
|Westdene and Withdean||26|
|Tivoli and Prestonville||27|
Types of improvement
The LCWIP does not include detail about the proposed improvements by route / area, but it is important to highlight some example approaches for this and set out the types of improvements that could be carried out.
Shown below are examples of measures which are considered to be best practice, many of which are in place in the city already. These measures and others will be explored and developed where appropriate when schemes are taken forward for delivery.
Improvements for each route or area would be considered as part of preliminary and detailed designs at a later stage, and this would be subject to further consultation.
The core design outcomes from the DfT’s LCWIP Technical Guidance are shown below. These have been taken into account when developing the cycling network and will also be used when developing specific design solutions for routes and areas.
DfT’s core design outcomes for cycling are:
- network must link places cyclists want to start and finish
- quality routes that are consistent and easy to navigate
- provision of direct and fast routes from origin to destination
- more direct or as direct as driving the same route
- routes must improve cyclists’ safety & feelings of safety
- consideration to reducing motor vehicle speeds
- remove the need for cyclists to come into close proximity and conflict with motor traffic, particularly at junctions
- smooth surfaces
- minimal stopping and starting
- avoiding steep gradients where possible
- few conflicts with other road users
- cycling involves close contact with the surroundings of a route; therefore the route should be attractive to cyclists in order to affect whether users choose to cycle
Types of improvement
Here are some of the types of improvements we will be considering making.
Wider pavements cater for the current level of demand. They allow people of all people to use them without difficulty.
Better quality pavements
We can make better pavements by:
- using better quality surface materials
- making sure the surface is level
- maintaining a smooth surface
Full or part-pedestrianisation of streets could happen, with restrictions in place for motor vehicle access. This could be enforced only at certain times of the day as in George Street, Hove.
These should cater for 'desire lines', meaning building pavements where people want to walk but may not be able to at the moment.
Continuous pavement at side roads
These will include a raised junction to improve access for pedestrians
We can provide wayfinding maps and information. This can include signposts to destinations including the time it takes to walk or cycle to them.
We can improve existing crossings by:
- maximising 'green man' time at signalised crossings
- changing from two-stage to single-stage crossings
- reduce crossing distances by narrowing roads at the crossing location
- giving automatic priority to pedestrians at crossings unless a vehicle arrives. This is being trialled in London currently.
We can also create new signalised, zebra or informal crossings where people want to cross.
Public realm and street furniture
We can improve the public realm and street furniture in the city by:
- tree planting and planting of other greenery
- making parklets (small seating areas or green spaces in verges or parking spaces)
- providing benches and other seating
- improving the quality of our pavement materials
You can see examples of some of these improvements at the Valley gardens project in central Brighton.
We can improve the state of our streets by reallocating and repositioning street furniture and pavements. We should also try to make sure that the pavements are well maintained.
We will improve or upgrade existing lighting
Low traffic measures
We will introduce both Modal filters and Low Traffic Neighbourhoods to the city.
Modal filters close roads using bollards or planters at key entry points. These prevent through traffic on residential streets. We already have some examples in the city such as Leighton Road.
Low Traffic Neighbourhoods (also called Liveable Neighbourhoods) are a neighbourhood approach to improving the look of streets within the neighbourhood. This can be done by introducing things such as modal filters.
We will look at reducing speed limits and introducing other traffic calming measures.
We will consider:
- measures to close streets to traffic around schools in the morning drop off and afternoon pick up periods
- creating safe spaces for walking, scooting and cycling for the school journey
- giving exemptions to these rules for residents, deliveries and people with disabilities
We will ensure walking and cycling improvements help out on longer journeys too by linking to bus stops and train stations.
- work with with employers, schools, local organisations and developers to encourage and support sustainable travel
- run campaigns to encourage and support safe and sustainable travel
- make reward schemes to incentivise sustainable travel, such as the city’s Move for Change scheme.
Fully separated cycle lanes
Cycle lanes will be separated from motor traffic by kerbs. They can be two-directional or one-way such as on Grand avenue and The Drive.
Stepped track cycle lane
These cycle lanes will have a slight level difference between the road, cycle lane and the pavement. You can see examples of these already on Old Shoreham Road between Dyke Road and The Drive.
Lightly separated cycle lanes
These cycle lanes will be separated using wands or low-height separation and planting
On-street parking would be next to the cycle lane, such as on the A259 temporary cycle lane.
Junction improvements for cyclists
We will improve junctions for cyclists by:
- introducing an advanced green light for cyclists, such as on Old Shoreham road by Valley Gardens.
- having separate signal stages to traffic to avoid conflicts such as left-turning vehicles
- adding Advanced Stop Lines (ASL) to allow cyclists space at the front of queuing traffic at junctions to enable them to get a safer head start
We will add parallel circular lanes for cyclists separate from general traffic with dedicated crossings for pedestrians and cyclists such as with CYCLOPS junctions (Cycle Optimised Protected Signals)
We will consider adding more bridges and underpasses for pedestrians and cyclists.
We will consider adding parallel pedestrian and cycle crossings (signalised or unsignalised) next to each other
Floating bus stops
We will consider making more floating bus stops where the cycle lane runs behind the stop such as the one on Lewes Road.
Bus stop boarder
These allow cyclists are brought up to pavement level to pass in front of the bus stop, sharing this space with pedestrians.
Waiting and loading restrictions
We will introduce restrictions to ensure safe access to pavement and cycle lane.
Contraflow cycle lanes
Contraflow cycle lanes allow two-way cycling on one way streets such as in the North Laine.
Bus and cycle lanes
Bus and cycle lanes combine the two types of lane where there is enough width to do so, such as on Lewes Road.
Coloured surfacing of cycle lanes
Colouring the surface of cycle lanes makes theme easier for people to recognise. We will choose a single colour to use across the whole urban area.
We will provide secure cycle parking in residential areas, such as the lockable cycle hangars on Shaftesbury Road. We will work with employees, schools and visitor attractions to put nearby secure cycle parking.
Stage 6: Integration and application
It is important that the LCWIP is embedded and integrated into the council’s wider plans, policies and decision-making so that it:
- forms part of an integrated suite of documents that respond to requirements for transport in an area and ensures that appropriate consideration is given to cycling and walking in all local planning and transport decisions; and
- becomes a ‘live’ document that is continuously evolving but which can also be used to identify opportunities to develop and implement the network.
The LCWIP will also be influenced by policies, strategies and projects across many areas of the council. It will be a key consideration in the planning process in terms of highlighting where investment in the current active travel network is needed; seeking developer contributions where developments are likely to put further pressure on the transport network.
Key policy, strategy and project linkages for the LCWIP include:
- planning policy
- development management
- traffic signals
- highway maintenance
- Public Rights of Way
- public health
- travel behaviour change
- visitor economy
- air quality
- road safety
- city parks
The LCWIP will be a live document which will be updated fully every 4 years.
There are a number of potential sources of funding available to deliver improvements identified in the LCWIP.
Integrated Transport and Maintenance Block funding
This is provided annually to the council by the government’s Department for Transport (DfT) to enable investment in various transport and highway projects and programmes.
Carbon Neutral Fund and Climate Action Fund
Council budgets to deliver projects to reduce carbon emissions and develop and deliver key recommendations from the city’s Climate Assembly.
Government frequently provides opportunities for local authorities to bid competitively for funding opportunities, with differing themes and objectives depending on the focus of the funding.
The council has been successful in securing recent government grants from the Emergency Active Travel Fund and the Active Travel Fund. This funding has assisted in delivering many schemes including Madeira Drive, the temporary Seafront cycle lane and the A23 improvements. We will utilise any further opportunities for government funding for active travel schemes, in line with the LCWIP network.
Government funding can also be made available for active travel improvements such as the cycle rail fund to improve cycle facilities at railway stations.
Through the Planning process, the council as Local Planning Authority will negotiate with developers in order to mitigate any potential impacts of new development or accommodate the expected increased travel demand, especially walking, cycling and public transport.
Developers are asked to pay for, or contribute towards, the cost of the additional infrastructure required. The level of contribution will be related to the scale of the new development and its impact on the local area. For transport, these specific funds can be secured via a legal (Section 106) agreement or works can be agreed that the developer fully pays for.
Alternatively, it is possible for works to be funded from the Community Infrastructure Levy process.
Surplus parking income
This budget is the money remaining after direct costs for parking enforcement, administration and equipment have been paid. It is a legal requirement that any surplus has to be invested into transport and highways.
The majority of parking surplus is spent on providing free bus passes for older people and people with disabilities, which the council has a legal duty to provide.
Money is also invested back into supporting bus services and other transport and highway projects.
Local Economic Partnership (LEP) funding
The Coast to Capital LEP provides funding opportunities for the region and the council has been successful in securing funding for local transport and regeneration projects such as Valley gardens and the BTN BikeShare Scheme.
Have your say
Fill in our consultation survey to have your say on the draft LCWIP.