LCWIP vision

A better connected city where active travel (walking, wheeling, cycling) is the first choice for getting from A to B, supported by high quality infrastructure which makes active travel accessible, easy, welcoming, enjoyable and safe.


Brighton & Hove is a wonderful place, its landscape, its people, its culture. A city with limitless potential and one which embraces active, inclusive and sustainable travel. The people who live, work and visit want better, cleaner ways to move and travel and it’s something we’re determined to deliver.  

The way we travel is at the heart of everything we do. It connects us to our communities, schools, businesses, healthcare and leisure; it connects us to each other. Walking and cycling are an integral part of many journeys in the city – whether on their own or combined with other ways of travelling such as public transport.  

Travelling sustainably is more important than ever. We face a climate and biodiversity emergency and need to do everything we can to reduce toxic emissions and improve air quality in the city. Members of our Climate Assembly in 2020 told us that we should be creating a car free city centre where people are prioritised over cars, as well as enabling cycling through a well-designed dedicated cycling network.  

We know we can make changes. During the pandemic, there was a national increase in the number of people walking and cycling. We found ways of exploring and enjoying the space around our homes and new ways of working.  

Our Local Cycling and Walking Infrastructure Plan (LCWIP) will be the foundation for creating a city which makes active travel accessible, easy, welcoming, enjoyable and safe.  

We heard from so many of you in our consultation on the draft LCWIP. Thank you for giving us your views on this important plan, as these have helped us shape this final document. There will be many more opportunities to feed into projects as they develop in more detail and are consulted on.  

Building an infrastructure that makes it easier for people to travel on foot or by cycle means we can increase the travel options people have. Walking and cycling needs to be a practical choice as well as a healthy and sustainable one.  

Developing our walking and cycling network will have benefits which reach far beyond those that use it. By ensuring everyone has access to convenient, continuous and good quality routes, we improve the walking environment for everyone and level out disparities between different parts of the city. The new look Valley Gardens is a great example of how this can be done.  

The plan will also complement the city’s excellent public transport network of buses, trains, taxis and BTN BikeShare bikes and be an integral part of our new Local Transport Plan. 

Working closely with our partners, through engagement with residents and businesses and by investing and innovating, we can create a city with walking and cycling at its core for the benefit of everyone. 

Stage 1: determining scope

The development of this Local Cycling and Walking Infrastructure Plan (LCWIP) document represents an important step for Brighton & Hove – setting out our strategic ambitions for improvements to the active travel network in the city, covering the next ten years. A network of safe and convenient routes and quality infrastructure is vital to ensure that we enable people to use active travel more in the future.  

What is active travel?

Active travel is transport that involves physical activity, such as walking, wheeling (wheelchair / mobility aid) and cycling, to get from one place to another. Active travel also forms an important element of multimodal journeys, particularly for public transport. It is often a more affordable, healthier and low carbon way to travel which helps to improve wellbeing, reduce congestion, improve safety and improve air quality. Where walking or pedestrians are mentioned in this document, please note this includes wheeling. 

What is inclusive travel? 

Inclusive travel is about making sure experiences and places can be enjoyed by the widest number of people and that they have equal access to the destination of their choice. This enables people of all abilities and ages to travel more confidently, independently and safely, as well as benefitting the economy and society as a whole. 

We are facing three national and global challenges:  

  • Obesity and inactivity 
  • Response to Covid-19 
  • Climate and biodiversity emergency 

An investment in active travel will help to address these three challenges and more. This investment would also improve air quality, improve mental and physical health, support sustainable development and economic growth (including the vital visitor economy) and promote low transport costs. In addition, it will help in developing and supporting vibrant neighbourhoods and local centres. 

  • Over 70% of respondents to the survey on the draft LCWIP are concerned with climate change (71%), air pollution (73%) and road safety (70%)  
  • Females generally have higher levels of concern about the transport-related issues than males, in particular relating to air pollution, climate change and personal safety 

Why is active travel so important?

Investing in active travel infrastructure improvements has a number of benefits. Everyone uses the pedestrian environment at some point in their journey, whether wheeling from a disabled parking space to the shops or walking to the bus stop, taxi rank or car club bay; therefore improved accessibility of walking routes benefits us all. Improving the quality of public spaces can also have a positive impact on our social interactions (Driven to Excess study, Hart & Parkhurst, Bristol 2011). We know that people are concerned about road danger ( Active Travel Fund consultation, Brighton & Hove City Council 2021 page 27) and cycle safety(Active Travel Fund consultation, Brighton & Hove City Council 2021 (pages 22, 35 to 38, 45 to 49, 54 to 58, 63 to 67). We know that many local residents rate their local pavement conditions as poor (Active Travel Fund consultation, Brighton & Hove City Council 2021 pages 25 to 27). By improving active travel facilities we can create healthier neighbourhoods where people want to walk and cycle, which helps to improve physical and mental wellbeing as well as create safer communities.

Why invest in active travel?

What is an LCWIP?

  • Strategic document which is evidence-based
  • Considers infrastructure only - wider supporting improvements will be addressed in the Local Transport Plan 5 document and other plans and strategies
  • Sets out proposed areas and networks for walking and cycling improvements in the city
  • Shows routes / areas where there is greatest potential for supporting and increasing levels of active travel 
  • Broadly considers where proposed improvements will be located, but does not include detail, this comes at a later stage along with further consultation 
  • Opens up future funding opportunities from various sources 
  • The LCWIP covers the city of Brighton & Hove and while the document takes into account links with neighbouring areas, these areas are covered by separate LCWIP documents produced by other local authorities 
  • An evolving document that will be updated regularly 
  • Covers a 10-year period (2022 to 2032)

Why do we need change? 

  • Feedback shows that the current active travel facilities need to be improved so that we have a complete, safe network of infrastructure to encourage active travel journeys in the city 
  • We have various targets and outcomes to meet both as a city and nationally, for carbon reduction, safer streets, air quality and more. In order to meet these we need a step-change in the provision of infrastructure which enables active journeys 
  • Active travel journeys should be easy, safe and accessible to all. We need to encourage active travel journeys, reduce road collisions and casualties and road danger or perceptions of danger 
  • We need to ensure that national standards for active travel infrastructure are being met, in line with new national commissioning body and inspectorate, Active Travel England.  

What needs to change? 

The development of the LCWIP enables the council to: 

  • Plan strategically for active travel infrastructure – not the detail of specific improvements but the principle of the network for improvements 
  • Consider active travel improvements in every transport scheme, including everyday improvements and maintenance 
  • Develop a complete network of active travel infrastructure for the city 
  • Create safe, accessible and welcoming spaces for active travel, to reduce potential conflicts between road users which is particularly important for disabled people 

How will the LCWIP help to deliver change? 

The LCWIP will assist in meeting local and national targets and commitments including: 

Target or commitment Context
Cycling and walking will be the first choice for many journeys with half of all journeys in towns and cities being cycled or walked by 2030 Gear Change – national target
Brighton & Hove will be net carbon neutral by 2030 2030 Carbon Neutral Programme – local target
To double cycling levels by 2025, increase walking activity, reduce the rate of cyclists killed or seriously injured (KSI), and increase the percentage of school children walking to school Cycling & Walking Investment Strategy (CWIS) national targets
To help achieve safe, healthy and welcoming streets and neighbourhoods; an accessible city with a transport network that everyone can use; improved air quality, and reduced carbon emissions LTP5, BHCC local key outcomes
To support (across the South East) an increase in the length of separated cycleways and mode share of trips undertaken by foot and cycle, a reduction in NOx (nitrogen oxides), SOx (sulphur oxides) and particulate pollution levels in urban areas, and a reduction in non-renewable energy consumed by transport Transport Strategy, TfSE, regional key performance indicators
To support more people to travel actively, and walking and cycling to be prioritised in order to benefit physical and mental health Joint Health and Wellbeing Strategy, BHCC/NHS, local key areas for action
To promote and facilitate the use of low and zero emission vehicles
Targets for improvements to passenger growth. By improving walking through the LCWIP we can improve access to and use of public transport. 
LTP5, BHCC local priority area and principle
Bus Service Improvement Plan (BSIP), Brighton & Hove City Council and bus providers through the Enhanced Partnership

What else is needed? 

Producing our first LCWIP is an important step in improving active travel infrastructure, but it is only part of the solution to enabling more active travel in the city. These wider projects are covered by the Local Transport Plan 5 – the initial outcomes and principles for which are mentioned later in this document. 

How do we support and increase active travel levels in the city?

  • A comprehensive network of walking and cycling routes
  • Behaviour change campaigns to show the benefits of walking and cycling
  • Linking in with other ways to travel, particularly bus and train
  • Providing safe and secure cycle parking at origins and destinations
  • More priority for pedestrians
  • Maintenance of routes and ensuring routes are free from obstructions 
  • Speed reduction
  • Support for travelling actively to destinations eg school and work
  • Sustainable location of new developments 
  • Information and maps to inform how people travel
  • Enforcement of parking, pavement parking, cycle lanes, speed limits, driver and cyclist behaviour 
  • BTN BikeShare
  • Road safety campaigns for safe walking, cycling and driving
  • Training for active travel eg Bikeability cycle training in schools

Key outputs

Key outputs from the LCWIP process are: 

  • Technical report
  • LCWIP maps showing network for improvement
  • Programme of strategic route improvements to take forward in short, medium and long term
  • Programme of local improvements to take forward in short, medium and long term

Engagement and consultation

Stakeholder engagement and public consultation have been a key element in the development of the LCWIP.  

Developing the LCWIP document 

A range of stakeholders were involved in developing the LCWIP, including those representing active travel interest groups, disability groups, older and younger people, local interest groups (eg residents’ associations), transport providers, ward councillors and neighbouring local authorities.  

Stakeholder engagement for development of LCWIP 

Stage of LCWIP Stakeholder engagement undertaken Methods
Gathering information Engagement with local and strategic stakeholders to understand key issues on the walking and cycling network and suggestions for improvement Stakeholder workshops, stakeholder survey, feedback received via email
Network planning for cycling and walking Engagement with local and strategic stakeholders to review the emerging and draft network Stakeholder workshops, stakeholder survey, feedback received via email
Prioritising improvements Engagement with strategic stakeholders to review draft prioritisation of improvements, prior to draft document going to public consultation Stakeholder workshops
Draft LCWIP document  Stakeholder and public engagement on draft document  Stakeholder workshops, focus groups, public events, consultation survey 

Member involvement 

A Member Working Group has been in place for the LCWIP development; this cross-party group of councillors has provided oversight to the development of the LCWIP document. At the January 2022 meeting of the group, it was agreed that the group would continue beyond the initial remit of the LCWIP document development, in order to have continued oversight of the LCWIP delivery.  

Public consultation 

A public consultation was held on the draft LCWIP document between 30 September and 15 November 2021 – this consultation also included the initial direction of travel document for the new Local Transport Plan (LTP5).  

The consultation was promoted at local events, through advertisements on bus stops and on council screens such as libraries, on the council’s website and social media, and by sending posters and information to various organisations and local stakeholder groups across the city. Officers also worked with local interest groups and schools in the city, and staged an exhibition and public drop-in sessions in Jubilee Library, to obtain as wide a coverage as possible. Focus groups were also held with specific groups – younger people, older people, Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) people and disabled people.  

An online survey was available on the council’s consultation portal, Citizen Space. Consultation documents were available to read online or via paper copies.  

The summary of engagement activity during the consultation is as follows: 

  • Approximately 250 people engaged via the four public events at Jubilee Library 
  • Eight focus group sessions were held, enabling more in-depth discussion of issues and feedback on proposals 
  • Fourteen workshops / meetings with stakeholders were held, including general workshops with stakeholders to attending meetings such as the Equalities & Inclusion Partnership, Quality Bus Partnership, Local Access Forum and the Destination Experience Group 
  • Over 900 responses to online survey – which was a very good response rate to an unsolicited consultation (ie information was not mailed directly to households) 

Materials developed for the consultation included posters to promote the consultation, postcards to hand out at events and to partners organisations, and paper copies of the consultation documents and questionnaire. Translations and large print / other formats of the documents were also available on request.  

Feedback received from this public consultation has been incorporated into this LCWIP document where appropriate. Some quotes from the feedback are shown below.

Quotes from public consultation feedback 

  • “Issues include condition of the pavement, broken kerbs, topography, potholes, enforcement of disabled bays, obstructions like skips in bays and pavement obstructions” 
    - Disabled people focus group participant 
  • “Safety on bikes – dangerous drivers and leaving little space for bikes to manoeuvre” 
    “Feel unsafe walking in the evening” 
    “I was knocked off my bike by a car, luckily moving slowly, turning left at a junction” 
    - School / Youth Council focus group participants 
  • “Too much conflict with pedestrians. Need for cyclists to be able to maintain speed and be separate from pedestrians.” 
    “Cycle network is currently very piecemeal.” 
    “I have a car but would prefer to use the bus more. In some places pavements don’t exist or are too narrow or have no dropped kerbs” 
    - Stakeholder workshop participants 
  • “Many parents are not allowing pupils to walk to school as they don’t feel it’s safe for children” 
    “I would cycle if there were more cycle lanes” 
    “Protected lanes are valuable and essential” 
    “More zebra crossings especially near schools” 
    “Cycling is too dangerous, it’s scary / difficult cycling with other vehicles, especially when not confident on the road” 
    “Cyclists make it more difficult for those with visual impairments to use the pavement when it is shared space” 
    - Young people, Disabled people and Black Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) people focus group participants 
  • “Shared cycle lanes - conflict with pedestrians” 
    - Public event comments 
  • “Concern about dangerous junctions for cyclists and that cycle paths often give up at difficult junctions” 
    - Stakeholder workshop participant  
  • “Cycling is too dangerous, it’s scary / difficult cycling with other vehicles, especially when not confident on the road” 
    - Black Asian and Minority Ethnic (BAME) people focus group participant 

How we have developed the LCWIP 

This LCWIP has been developed by following the process set out in the Department for Transport’s Local Cycling and Walking Infrastructure Plans – Technical Guidance (2017), in line with the local transport objectives, priorities and vision set out in the emerging LTP5.  

Stage 1 – Determining scope: 

  • Geographical scope 
  • Resources needed to deliver the plan 
  • Governance arrangements 
  • Stakeholder engagement approach 
  • Timescales 

Stage 2 – Gathering information: 

  • Review of local, regional and national policies to understand key linkages 
  • Collating information and data on the existing walking and cycling network and trips 
  • Identifying trip origins and destinations (existing and planned) 

Stage 3 and 4 – Network planning for active travel 

  • Mapping trip origin and destination points and trip generators 
  • Identifying barriers to movement 
  • Identifying desire lines for cycling journeys 
  • Auditing of strategic routes to understand existing provision and potential for future improvement 
  • Identifying local areas and routes for improvement 

Stage 5 – Prioritising improvements 

  • Developing timescales for delivery over short, medium and long-term 
  • High-level prioritisation: prioritising improvements considering effectiveness, cost and deliverability 

Stage 6 – Integration and application 

  • Signoff of the document 
  • Continued integration within policies, application for funding bids 
  • Regular updating of the document 

Stage 2: gathering information

  • Review of local, regional and national policies to understand key linkages 
  • Collating information and data on the existing walking and cycling network and trips 
  • Identifying trip origins and destinations (existing and planned) 

Policy context

National policies and strategies

Including Gear Change (2020) and Local Transport Note 01/20, Cycling and Walking Investment Strategy (2017), Inclusive Transport Strategy (2018) 

Regional policies and strategies

Including Transport for the South East (TfSE) Transport Strategy (2020), Local Economic Partnership Strategic Economic Plan (2018) 

Local plans and strategies

Including Local Transport Plan 4 (LTP4) (2015) and Local Transport Plan 5 (LTP5) (in development), which the LCWIP sits under, along with other plans eg the Bus Service Improvement Plan (BSIP) (2021), the Rights of Way Improvement Plan (ROWIP) (2018) and the Air Quality Action Plan (2015 and in development).

Policy background - national

Cycling and Walking Investment Strategy (CWIS)

Department for Transport (DfT), 2017

Aims to:

  • make cycling and walking the natural choices for shorter journeys, or as part of a longer journey
  • double cycling levels by 2025
  • increase walking activity
  • reduce the number of cyclists killed or seriously injured (KSI)
  • increase the percentage of school children walking to school

Through the CWIS, local authorities are strongly encouraged by the DfT to prepare LCWIPs in order to take a more strategic approach to planning walking and cycling networks. 

It is noted in the DfT’s LCWIP Technical Guidance that ‘While the preparation of LCWIPs is non-mandatory, local authorities who have plans will be well placed to make the case for future investment.’’

Gear Change

Gear Change is a bold vision for cycling and walking, which sets out the government’s ambition to see a step-change in cycling and walking in the coming years.

Local Transport Note 1/20 (LTN1/20)
DfT, 2020

Along with technical guidance Local Transport Note 1/20 (LTN1/20), Gear Change is bold in its vision for improving infrastructure for cycling in order to encourage many more journeys by active modes. The document represents a step-change in the national approach to encouraging and supporting cycling via provision of high quality, fit for purpose routes. 

Gear Change: One Year On
DfT, 2021

Gear Change’s themes are:

  • better streets for cycling and people
  • putting cycling and walking at the heart of transport, place-making, and health policy
  • empowering and encouraging local authorities to make improvements for active travel
  • enabling people to cycle and protect them when they cycle

The vision also announces the creation of a new national body, Active Travel England, to oversee scheme implementation and funding, inspect scheme delivery, as well as review planning applications. 

In 2021 the government published Gear Change: One Year On, which highlights some of the achievements since its original publication, as well as new and continuing commitments for supporting cycling amid the ever-present need for keeping towns and cities moving. 

These new commitments include:

  • changes to statutory network management guidance for local authorities
  • further funding and opportunities for walking and cycling projects
  • changes to the Highway Code to support pedestrians and cyclists
  • further powers of traffic enforcement for local authorities

Decarbonising Transport 
DfT, 2021

This new strategy sets out how government will address the decarbonisation of transport across all modes. A key element of this is increasing levels of walking and cycling, with the delivery of a world-class cycling and walking network in England by 2040.

Future of Mobility: Urban Strategy
DfT, 2019

The government’s Future of Mobility programme starts with this urban strategy, setting out the principles which will guide our approach to emerging mobility technologies and services. One of the key principles is that ‘Walking, cycling and active travel must remain the best options for short urban journeys’

Clean Air Strategy 
DfT, 2019

This sets out how government intends to tackle all sources of air pollution, making our air healthier to breathe, protecting nature and boosting the economy by creating better places. It notes that air quality is the largest environmental health risk in the UK, shortening lives and contributing to chronic illness.

Inclusive Transport Strategy 
DfT, 2018

This strategy will help deliver the government’s manifesto commitment of creating a transport system offering equal access for disabled people by 2030, as well as getting a million more disabled people into work by 2027. This strategy is very relevant for the LCWIP development as walking and cycling are key modes not only in themselves but for multi-modal journeys; as well as needing to ensure the accessibility and inclusivity of schemes.

Key regional policy linkages for LCWIP

Policy background – regional 

Transport Strategy
Transport for the South East, 2020

Transport for the South East (TfSE) is an emerging Sub-national Transport Body (STB), a partnership of 16 local authorities (including Brighton & Hove City Council), five Local Enterprise Partnerships (LEPs) plus representatives of district and borough authorities, protected landscapes and national delivery agencies. 

TfSE’s Transport Strategy (2020) aims to grow the economy of the South East by delivering a safe, sustainable, and integrated transport system that makes the South East more productive and competitive, improves the quality of life for all residents, and protects and enhances its natural and built environment. Its ambition is to transform the quality of transport and door-to-door journeys for the South East’s residents, businesses and visitors. The strategy is moving from a traditional ‘predict and provide’ approach, to one of actively choosing a preferred future and setting out a plan of how we can get there together. 
The key principles of the strategy are:

  1. Supporting sustainable economic growth, but not at any cost
  2. Protecting the environment
  3. Creating great places to live
  4. Putting people first
  5. Planning regionally for the short, medium and long term
  6. Planning for successful places
  7. Putting the user at the heart of the transport system
  8. Planning regionally for the short, medium and long-term

These principles are then applied to six journey types: radial, orbital & coastal, inter-urban, local, journeys to international gateways and freight and journeys in the future. 
Due to the scale of governance and responsibilities for TfSE, walking and cycling do not feature heavily in the strategy, however they will be key in many of the identified schemes / funding streams, particularly for interchange and multi-modal journeys. 

Strategic Economic Plan (SEP) – Gatwick 360°
Coast to Capital LEP, 2018

This plan sets out eight economic priorities:

  • deliver prosperous urban centres
  • develop business infrastructure and support
  • invest in sustainable growth
  • create skills for the future
  • pioneer innovation in core strengths
  • promote better transport 
  • improve digital network capability
  • build a strong national and international profile

Based on the LEP’s priorities, a number of projects in the city have secured significant funding from the LEP such as Valley Gardens and BTN BikeShare.

Policy background - local

The Local Cycling and Walking Infrastructure Plan (LCWIP) is one of a number of plans which will assist in delivering the vision, key outcomes and principles of the emerging fifth Local Transport Plan (LTP5), which were approved by the council’s Environment, Transport and Sustainability committee in June 2021. A consultation document was produced showing the initial direction of travel for the LTP5, this was consulted on in autumn 2021 alongside the draft LCWIP.

LTP5 will cover all modes of transport, and ways to deliver it will include infrastructure as well as other measures e.g. behaviour change and enforcement. 

The 2030 transport vision for the city is for ‘Better connected residents, businesses and visitors, for an improved quality of life in a healthy, inclusive and carbon neutral city.’

The LCWIP aligns with the six key LTP5 outcomes:

  • a sustainable, strong and fair economy
  • safe, healthy and welcoming streets and neighbourhoods
  • an accessible city with a transport network that everyone can use
  • improved air quality to safeguard the health of our communities
  • reduced carbon emissions to protect our global environment
  • travel that respects our local environment

The following key principles will inform the development of the LTP5 priority areas:

  • reduce the need to travel – avoiding or reducing the frequency and length of trips we make by vehicles
  • shift how people travel – prioritising walking and cycling for shorter journeys, and public transport for longer journeys
  • clean vehicle travel – vehicle travel to be low or zero emission, powered by renewable energy sources 

Of these, the LCWIP will assist principally in shifting how people travel for short journeys in the city. Delivering an improved network of routes and areas for active travel will support the aims of the proposed LTP5 priority areas for interventions, including to:

  • create an inclusive and integrated transport system
  • reduce car use
  • develop streets and places that encourage and enable active travel
  • increase public transport use

In this LCWIP we set out a number of themes for active travel improvement projects which align with or support a number of LTP5’s key outcomes and proposed priority areas.

Other key strategic documents that the LCWIP will support, and that will support the delivery of the LCWIP,  include:

Rights of Way Improvement Plan (ROWIP)
BHCC, 2018

The ROWIP identifies changes that will improve rights of way and access provision for walkers, cyclists, horse riders and those with mobility issues. 

The ROWIP states the vision for rights of way in Brighton & Hove as: 

‘A city where people with diverse access needs have the opportunity to use a well maintained and joined up public Rights of Way network, connected to the varied green and blue spaces around the city: the seafront, city parks and gardens, open spaces on the urban fringe and the South Downs National Park.’

he LCWIP and the ROWIP complement each other by ensuring provision for not only everyday journeys, but also journeys to open spaces in and around the city.

Bus Service Improvement Plan (BSIP)
BHCC, 2021

The BSIP was produced in response to the government’s National Bus Strategy and will be reviewed annually. It sets out the council’s aspirations for how bus services can be improved working in partnership with the city’s bus operators. The BSIP and LCWIP are complementary plans which will enable more active travel and bus use. 

Economic Strategy and Visitor Economy Strategy
BHCC, 2018

Ensuring a liveable, welcoming city streetscape is important in ensuring continued growth of the economy including the visitor economy. One of the five key themes for action in the Economic Strategy is ‘a sustainable city’. 

The development of a five-year Destination Management Plan will support the visitor strategy, and sustainable travel and movement after arrival in the city will play a key role.  Good connections between venues and all the city’s facilities are required and will be delivered through good transport and public realm design. 

Joint Health & Wellbeing Strategy
BHCC, 2018

This sets out the vision that ‘Everyone in Brighton & Hove will have the best opportunity to live a healthy, happy and fulfilling life.’ 

The principles to guide the delivery of the strategy include partnership and collaboration, reducing health inequalities, engagement and involvement and keeping people safe.

City Plan Part One and City Plan Part Two
BHCC, 2016 and 2020

The City Plan sets out the Development Plan framework for the city. It will help shape the future of the city and plays an important role in ensuring that other citywide plans and strategies achieve their objectives. 

Strategic Objective 11 (SO11) is to ‘Provide an integrated, safe and sustainable transport system to improve air quality, reduce congestion, reduce noise and promote active travel.

Safer Roads Strategy 
BHCC, 2014 

The strategy sets out the vision to create a safe road traffic system, in which no-one will suffer death or serious injury whilst using it. The council will work with stakeholders including Sussex Safer Roads Partnership to deliver the strategy, which sets out the four principles of education, engineering, enforcement and encouragement.

Public Space, Public Life study
BHCC, 2007

This work for the council was led by Gehl Architects and its principles and toolkit were endorsed in 2007.  The study aimed to enhance the public realm and make the city become more legible for everyone, and included an audit of the quality of the public realm and recommendations for future improvements.  This resulted in recommendations including the creation of links with special identity and character, improvements to conditions for walking and cycling in the city, designing a high-quality city for people and improving safety.  

2030 Carbon Neutral Programme (CNP)
BHCC, 2021

The council declared a climate and biodiversity emergency in December 2018 and has committed to becoming carbon neutral by 2030. This was a demonstration of the city’s commitment to tackling climate change. The 2030 CNP will oversee the development and then delivery of a co-ordinated programme of projects which aim to tackle climate change and transition the city to become carbon neutral. Planning for future growth of walking and cycling, including by developing the LCWIP, is a key focus of actions from the CNP.

The city’s Air Quality Action Plan and an assessment framework for Low Traffic Neighbourhoods are also in development, which the LCWIP will have close links with and will assist in delivering objectives from these documents. 

LCWIP themes

These themes for active travel improvement projects will steer the direction of how we carry out projects in the city and ensure active travel will be at the heart of project development and delivery, in line with our city-wide principles, objectives and outcomes through the emerging Local Transport Plan 5.

LCWIP themes and integration with LTP5 

Local Transport Plan 5 
key outcome or priority area
LCWIP themes

Key outcome: An accessible city with a transport network that everyone can use

Priority area: Creating an inclusive and integrated transport system

Access for all:

  • We will consider accessibility for everyone at the start of all schemes and seek to prioritise improvements 

  • Meeting the needs of different users eg disabled people, visitors to the city, families, will be at the forefront of schemes in order to integrate provision for active travel as part of journeys 

  • We will ensure active travel infrastructure enables safe and unobstructed travel along routes 

Integration of projects and different means of travel:

  • Active travel will be reviewed and improved as part of all transport projects 

  • As well as considering active travel users in schemes, we will consider other road users, particularly disabled drivers, public transport and delivery vehicles, when developing schemes 

  • We will take a holistic approach to scheme design, from major projects to everyday improvements and highway maintenance 

  • We will provide more secure on-street cycle parking in residential areas and at destinations 

  • We will consider future highway maintenance arrangements in the design of schemes 

Key outcomes: Safe, healthy and welcoming streets and neighbourhoods
Travel that respects our local environment

Priority area: Developing streets and places that encourage and enable active

A clear, coherent network that is promoted widely:

  • we will promote the network as it develops and involve people in its design and delivery

  • where coloured surfacing is necessary, we will adopt a clear and consistent approach by using green surfacing

  • we will adopt a clear approach to wayfinding for active travel, including online maps and information for journey planning

  • we will promote the benefits of active travel and support, encourage and incentivise sustainable travel use in the city


  • we will consider improved planting for all schemes, particularly provision of trees to increase shade and cover

  • we will consider parklets where appropriate in scheme designs, particularly in dense urban areas

  • we will consider Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems in scheme design

Priority area: Promoting and using technology to reduce and manage travel


  • we will trial new ways of doing things, including linking with other projects such as the development of the 5G network in the city

  • we will continue to be innovators in new designs, building on project successes such as Valley Gardens, New Road and Lewes Road

Existing context and challenges

Existing travel context

Active travel represents about a quarter of journeys to work in the city. Active travel also forms an important element of journeys by other means of travel, particularly bus and train. The city has higher than average bus use compared to nationally (outside London) due to the comprehensive network of high-quality services in place in the city.  

Travel to work data shows the need for increasing active travel for short journeys or as part of longer journeys, and the importance of reducing private vehicle use in order to meet both local and national targets.

Travel to work in Brighton & Hove, census 2011

  • by car or van (driver or passenger) – 41%
  • on foot – 22%
  • by bus, minibus or coach – 14%
  • by train – 10%
  • by bike – 5%

Data from the LCWIP public consultation shows that in autumn 2021: 

  • Walking is particularly high in local neighbourhood areas at 80% of respondents, and 74% of respondents walk to their local shops. 
  • The car is used by 12% of respondents to travel around the local neighbourhood 
  • 65% of respondents are using the car to leave the city into neighbouring areas compared to only 29% by train; 46% of respondents are also using the car to do the weekly food shop 

Respondents are mostly using sustainable travel for journeys around the local neighbourhood and into the city centre. Car or van use for journeys in the local neighbourhood is low, rising to nearly 20% for journeys into the city centre so there is potential to encourage more sustainable modes for local trips. 

Car ownership in the city is low compared to national figures. Over a third of households don’t own a car or have access to one.  

In terms of travel for all purposes, data collected by the DfT shows that around a quarter of adults in Brighton & Hove cycle at least once a month; and 84% of adults in Brighton & Hove walk at least once a week. While this is encouraging, in order to meet our local and national targets and commitments, we need to increase these levels by providing high-quality facilities in the city where people want to walk and cycle, and crucially where they feel safe in doing so.  

Data from the National Travel Attitudes Survey shows the increased importance of active travel since the pandemic. When interviewed between May and September 2020, 34% of cyclists reported to cycle more and 38% of those who walk as a means of transport reported to walk more than before the outbreak of the coronavirus.  

In terms of traffic levels in the city, annual average daily traffic counts on key inner routes into the city show a reduction in traffic of 23% between 2019 and 2020 (Brighton & Hove City Council, Key Performance Indicators for traffic on key inner routes into the city, 2019-2020), this is consistent with recent, national traffic flow trends which show a sharp decline in traffic levels across 2020.     

Data from the National Highways and Transport Public Satisfaction Survey (NHT Survey) shows falling satisfaction levels for traffic levels and congestion.(National highways and Transport Public Satisfaction Survey (NHT Survey) 2020)  

It is therefore critical that we continue to invest in and plan for a comprehensive network to make active travel safe, accessible and the first choice, especially for short journeys in the city in order to free up roadspace and ease congestion. It is important that the national rise in active travel for local journeys seen since the Covid-19 pandemic is adequately catered for in terms of infrastructure to support these journeys longer term. 

Existing context

  • Over a third of households don’t own a car (or have one available) 
  • 46 million bus journeys a year in the city 
  • More than half of residents commute to work by foot, cycle or public transport 
  • 13,500 blue badge holders in the city 
  • More than half of children walk, scoot or cycle to primary and secondary schools 
  • 40km of designated (permanent) cycle routes including the National Cycle Network 

The city’s current active travel network is illustrated on the council’s cycling map, which includes bridleways. This network will be further developed through the LCWIP.  

Existing challenges 

Extensive mapping and auditing have taken place and been combined with stakeholder engagement feedback to help identify current issues and challenges for infrastructure. 

Brighton & Hove is a compact city and while this offers opportunities for active journeys, it also brings challenges such as limited space and challenging geography, such as narrow streets and hills.  

LCWIP consultation survey data  

55% of respondents expressed levels of dissatisfaction with the walking environment in the local area. This shows that we need to make improvements. The top 3 comments relating to this refer to the condition of pavements, obstructions and clutter on pavements and pavement parking. 

54% of respondents show levels of dissatisfaction with the cycling environment in the city. This shows that we need to make improvements. The top 3 comments are: a lack of safe cycle routes, cycle lanes end abruptly, and there a re gaps in the current cycle network routes. 

Barriers to active travel – feedback from autumn 2021 consultation 

  • Poor surface conditions 
  • Street clutter and obstructions 
  • Conflict between pedestrians and cyclists when sharing the same space 
  • Dangerous junctions 
  • Lack of cycle parking (residential and at destinations) 
  • Pavement parking / parking in cycle lanes 
  • Road safety concerns 
  • Gaps in network 
  • Hilliness and distance 
  • Dangerous driving / speeding 
  • Personal safety concerns / lack of lighting and surveillance 
  • Lack of a complete network 
  • Expensive bus fares 
  • Lack of seating and greening 
  • Lack of cycle training 

Evidence base for LCWIP network 

Developing an active travel network 

The LCWIP aims to connect people to places by active travel, making it easy and safe to do so. It plans strategically for whole routes and areas in order to overcome problems that can arise where infrastructure is incomplete. The network has been developed both strategically and locally: 

Strategic network: 

  • Planned using strategic destinations 
  • An origin-destination approach planned around longer journeys (cycling-focused) 
  • A linear approach, taking direct routes and creating a complete network across the city 
  • Main focus of the network planning has been on cycling journeys but there will be many benefits for walking by improving these routes 

Local network: 

  • Planned using local destinations and barriers 
  • An area-based approach as well as identifying some linear routes to connect with the strategic network 
  • Main focus of the network planning has been on walking journeys but there will be many benefits for cycling by improving these routes and areas 

Clustering of origin and destination points corridors

  • Clustering of origin and destination points corridors

  • Origins and destinations have been mapped and clusters of these have been identified

  • Desire line corridors have then been identified between these

  • Journeys can also link into these corridors from neighbouring areas

From DfT Local Cycling and Walking Plans Technical Guidance (2017) p17

Linkages between strategic and local networks for active travel  

Strategic corridors have been identified for the active travel network

Area-based treatments and routes have been identified on a local level – these provide opportunities for improvements for those travelling on foot and by bike, which also link with the strategic corridors.

Linkages between strategic and local networks for active travel

Origins and destinations (existing and planned) to be connected by the LCWIP:

Home origins and:

  • healthcare
  • leisure and attractions
  • employment areas
  • city centre
  • local centres
  • district centres
  • educational facilities
  • transport interchanges
  • retail

The LCWIP needs to support journeys to and from where people want to travel. It also needs to prioritise routes and areas for improvement based on where investment will be best placed and where the most uptake and benefit can be realised in future, therefore assisting in meeting the various national and local targets and commitments.

Gathering information to develop the network 

Various data and information have been gathered and mapped as part of the LCWIP process, to identify and understand the current network, its issues and potential for change. This helps understand the need for supporting active travel in the city through a network of infrastructure. Further details are available in the Technical Report (Available on request from 

Data reviewed and analysed in developing the LCWIP network included: 

  • 2011 Census data (such as travel to work) 
  • Local and national traffic counts 
  • Road Traffic Collision data 
  • Previous consultations where improvements were proposed 
  • Previous area studies where issues were reviewed, and potential solutions proposed 
  • Locations of trip generators (origins and destinations) 
  • Perceptions of existing facilities

Initial mapping work showed origin – destination analysis for cycling, which helped form the strategic network. The local network was informed by analysis around movement within areas and by considering barriers to movement. Both networks will be for improvements for active travel as a whole.  

Stakeholder engagement was undertaken to gather information from local users of the active travel network and to both supplement and challenge the data gathered. 

The first set of stakeholder engagement (May – June 2020) involved workshops, supported by a survey asking stakeholders to identify on maps where there were issues / suggestions for active travel in the city. This, in conjunction with the data, helped inform the development of the emerging networks. 

The draft emerging networks were then presented to stakeholders in autumn 2020 where comments were invited (via workshops and a survey) to feedback on the network and whether it met the needs of stakeholders and addressed issues / suggestions raised previously. Feedback received at this stage was very valuable in determining how to take the networks forward in the LCWIP development. The draft networks were then presented in the LCWIP public consultation.  

Stage 3 and 4: Network planning for cycling and walking

  • Mapping trip origin and destination points and trip generators 
  • Identifying barriers to movement 
  • Identifying desire lines for cycling journeys 
  • Auditing of strategic routes to understand existing provision and potential for future improvement 
  • Identifying local areas and routes for improvement 

 Developing the LCWIP network

The analysis to develop the strategic and local network has been split by walking and cycling in order to plan for the different types of journey. For example cycling journeys are generally longer in distance than walking and need more of a route-based focus; and walking journeys generally being shorter (on their own or part of a longer journey including other forms of transport), needing more of an area-based focus. However, the networks and areas for improvement have been developed in conjunction with each other to form a combined network. This is so that when improvements are taken forward for delivery, detailed consideration of all forms of transport, including interaction with public transport and other motor vehicles, will take place. This means that improvements will not necessarily be limited to just active travel.  

Strategic network

What is required?

To plan the strategic network, consideration has been given to cycling journeys as these are likely to be longer, however there are considerations within the process for walking journeys as well. The following tasks have been undertaken: 

  • Identifying and clustering trip origin and destination points 
  • Establishing desire lines for cycle movement 
  • Planning the network and identifying improvements 

Why is it needed?

In order to enable strategic planning for routes, it is necessary to establish desire lines for where people want and need to travel to and from – both now and in the future. These desire lines are then compared with the road network and routes can be planned from this by considering in more detail at what exactly needs improving on these routes. By providing high quality infrastructure on these key routes, it is more likely to increase the levels of active travel in the city. We know that a key reason some people don’t cycle or walk is because they’re concerned about safety. Benefits of increased levels of active travel include better physical and mental health for residents, better air quality and reduced congestion. Consideration needs to be given not only to current movements but future journeys and mobility options as well, which would benefit from a joined up, high-quality network.  

What does this mean for the city’s strategic network? 

The process of developing the strategic network for the city started with an origin and destination analysis, including existing and planned locations where people are currently travelling to and from and will need to in future. Origins and destinations across the city were mapped and connected in a straight-line analysis. Routes were then mapped to the road network and were reviewed to ensure the most appropriate routes were taken to cater for the desire lines for journeys where people want to go. This initial map set out the strategic network, which then needed prioritisation in order to determine the routes where investment will bring the greatest benefits and therefore need developing earlier than others.  

An early prioritisation exercise was therefore undertaken, with the following criteria used to determine which routes were highest priority: 

  • High deprivation levels (Indices of Multiple Deprivation data)  
  • Improving active travel and accessibility to schools and workplaces (using Propensity to Cycle Tool (PCT) data) 
  • Poor Air Quality (using Air Quality Management Area (AQMA) locations) 
  • Economic factors (key employment, town and local centres) 
  • Areas of development (development allocations) 

These datasets were mapped and routes across the city were scored based on the above criteria. Links to neighbouring area networks and the Rights of Way Improvement Plan (ROWIP) were also considered as part of this process. The outputs from this exercise are detailed in the Technical Report and the summary of this analysis is the prioritised network as shown in the network maps. Within the strategic network map, the top 17 priority strategic routes are shown in pink, with the remaining strategic routes in blue and key existing recreational routes in orange. The routes are also shown in the tables below, where some routes have been split into sections for logical delivery. Names of strategic routes shown on the maps are referenced in Appendix 1.  

This first LCWIP document represents key routes for improvement at this point in time but there will be further routes that will need investigation and development as the LCWIP evolves.

Local network 

What is required? 

With stakeholders we created an approach to developing the local network to meet the requirements of the city. This involved looking not just at linear routes to connect with the strategic network but also determining potential for area-based approaches across the city. For the local network a walking-based approach has been taken, however the improvements and benefits will be for active travel as a whole, including linking multi-modal journeys.  

Why is it needed? 

When planning strategically for local improvements, it is important to understand that there are many factors influencing and affecting the use of active travel in these areas. During the network development process it was determined that area-based approaches to walking were most appropriate rather than simply looking at linear routes to and from local centres. It is also important to recognise that while every street is part of the overall active travel network, the approach for the LCWIP is to identify routes and areas most in need of improvement over the next ten years. Taking an area-based approach ensures that broader benefits can be obtained for measures put in place.  

What does this mean for the city’s local network? 

A methodology has been developed to identify locations for local improvements, based on both area-based treatments and linear routes. These will complement any improvements as part of interventions proposed for the strategic network, and can be seen in the network maps which show the combined network.  

The purpose of an area-based treatment is to improve the environment for active travel through a reduction of through-traffic. This discourages rat-running by reducing through-traffic, as it is re-routed to more appropriate roads. This results in a safer and more pleasant area for local residents. Although these areas have been identified through a process looking at walking, they will also provide an opportunity to enable cyclists to start or continue their journeys to and from the strategic network.  

Area-based treatments have been identified in areas within the city which surround, and provide access to, an education facility and/or a train station. The areas themselves have been determined by considering the following: 

  • Key barriers / severance, such as railway lines and main roads 
  • Key trip attractors, such as train stations and education facilities 
  • Access to the strategic network 

To complement the area-based treatments and the strategic network, additional linear routes have been identified which focus on key walking routes, including: 

  • Funnel routes - high footfall areas where people are funnelled into limited space on a route eg over a bridge or across a railway line 
  • Key corridors - likely to have significant footfall, or the potential for significant footfall, such as routes to key destinations including an education facility or a train station, or along a key street to a shopping area or local centre 

The local areas and routes for improvement, shown in the network maps alongside the strategic network, highlight the areas and routes that can assist in creating liveable, healthy communities where active travel can become the first choice for all or part of a journey for a significant number of people. Areas and routes, as well as neighbourhood priorities, are described in further detail in Appendix 2. The local areas and routes are named on the maps, these denote names only and not priority order.  

The additional maps show the prioritisation for neighbourhoods to be taken forward for local improvements, subject to funding and further design and consultation.  

LCWIP network


LCWIP network sub-area key 


LCWIP network: Sub-area 1 map 


LCWIP network: Sub-area 2 map 


LCWIP network: Sub-area 3 map 


LCWIP network: Sub-area 4 map 


LCWIP network: Sub-area 5 map 


LCWIP network: Sub-area 6 map 



Stage 5: Prioritising improvements

  • Developing timescales for delivery over short medium and long-term 
  • High-level prioritisation: prioritising improvements considering effectiveness, cost and delivery 

Strategic network prioritisation 

The pre-prioritisation criteria for strategic routes, noted in the previous section, formed the basis for identifying the strategic network including the top 17 priority routes. From this, the draft network was then discussed with stakeholders and refined further to form the final network. Further information on this process can be found in the Technical Report.  

The table below shows the prioritisation for improvements needed for the top 17 priority strategic routes. These schemes are all high priority for delivery, with different timescales, and some have been split into smaller sections for delivery, with wider route references noted – these can also be seen on the network maps. The routes are set out by short, medium and long term time periods for delivery (short-term <3 years, medium-term <5 years, long-term >5 years); these have been determined by considering a number of factors including technical feasibility and alignment with funding streams and other workstreams.

Top 17 strategic routes and prioritisation status
Scheme Strategic route reference Priority (short, medium or long term)
Church Street 1 Short
North Street 2a Medium
Dyke Road - Seven Dials to The Upper Drive 2b Medium
Dyke Road - The Upper Drive to A27 2c Medium
Lewes Road (south) 3a Medium
Lewes Road (north) 3b Medium
A23 (Argyle Road to Patcham Roundabout) 4a Short
A23 (A259 to Marlborough Place) 4b Short
A23 (Valley Gardens to Argyle Road) 4c Medium
Eastern Road / Edward Street 5 Long
Madeira Drive 6a Short
A259 (Wharf Road to Palace Pier) 6b Short
A259 (western border to Wharf Road) 6c Medium
Chesham Road, St George's Road, Bristol Road and St James's Street 7 Long
Buckingham Place / Terminus Road / Queens Road / West Street 8 Medium
A259 (Marine Parade) 9a Short
A259 (Marine Drive) 9b Short
Western Road (Dyke Road to Montpelier Road) 10a Short
New Church Road / Church Road / Western Road 10b Medium
Queens Park Road 11 Long
Old Shoreham Road (Hangleton Road to Dyke Road) 12a Medium
Old Shoreham Road (east of Dyke Road) / New England Road / Viaduct Road / Upper Lewes Road 12b Long
Old Shoreham Road (western border to Hangleton Road) 12c Long
Ditchling Road (north) 13a Short
Ditchling Road (south) 13b Long
Upper Hollingdean Road 14 Long
Union Road 15 Medium
Nevill Road and King George VI Avenue 16a Medium
Sackville Road 16b Long
Wilson Avenue 17 Long

The remaining strategic routes are shown in the table below. These have also been split into sections for delivery, with wider route references noted, however, the LCWIP is an evolving document and will be reviewed and updated over time. It will also help to guide investment. Schemes in this list are medium to low priority, and may be brought forward sooner if funding becomes available or there is overlap with other schemes such as road or pavement maintenance or proposals linked to development. 

Other strategic cycling routes
Scheme Strategic route reference

Springfield Road (Preston Road to

Beaconsfield Road)


Springfield Road (Beaconsfield Road

to Ditchling Road)


Stanford Avenue and Beaconsfield



Trafalgar Road, Locks Hill,

Southdown Road and Croft Drive

Elm Grove and Warren Road 21
Argyle Road (A23 to Campbell Road) 22

Argyle Road and Campbell Road

(rest of area)


Boundary Road and  Hangleton Road

Hangleton Way and Downland Drive 24
Vernon Terrace and Montpelier Road 25
The Avenue 26
Davigdor Road and Cromwell Road 27
Portland Road 28
Basin Road South 29
Gladstone Road 30
Carden Avenue 31
Coldean Lane 32
Grand Avenue and The Drive 33

Fox Way and Hangleton Lane

The Upper Drive 35

Mile Oak Road and High Street


Preston Drove and Millers Road


Rottingdean High Street and Falmer Road


Barcombe Place and Lucraft Road


Prioritisation of local areas and routes

In order to establish where local improvements are most required, it was important to identify neighbourhoods across the city which have the greatest need for improvements, and where the improvements would have the greatest benefit. 

To determine areas with the most need for improvements, the following criteria and datasets were used: 

Areas with the most need:

  • areas with higher deprivation (from the Indices of Multiple Deprivation (IMD) (2019))
  • areas with an elderly population (defined as 75 and over and taken from the 2011 census)
  • areas with a young population (defined as under 18 and taken from the 2011 census)
  • areas with a higher number of road traffic collisions involving injury to a pedestrian or a cyclist  (October 2017 to September 2020, Sussex Safer Roads Partnership)

Areas that would most benefit:

To determine areas that would benefit the most from improvements, the following sources of information were reviewed: 

  • Location of education facilities (including primary, secondary, colleges and universities) 
  • Strategic development sites 
  • Local destination locations, such as local shopping centres 
  • Location of leisure facilities (including leisure walking routes) and green spaces 
  • Air Quality Management Areas (AQMAs) 

The overall prioritisation for the local network (for area-based improvements as well as local links), is shown below. The top priority areas for local network improvements, and associated area-based treatments and routes, are shown below, and form the high priority areas for the local network. This prioritisation was undertaken initially based on the criteria above, which helped inform the areas and routes for improvement within these neighbourhoods. Remaining neighbourhood areas are medium to low priority.

Prioritised list of neighbourhood areas for walking improvements

Neighbourhood prioritisation for local network improvements 

Prioritisation of neighbourhoods for local network improvements (1-10 are high priority, 11-31 are medium to low priority)  

Neighbourhood area Priority
East Brighton / Whitehawk 1
Moulsecoomb 2
Portslade 3
Knoll / West Blatchington 4
Hangleton 5
Mile Oak and Portslade Village 6
Hollingdean 7
Woodingdean 8
West Hove 9
West Blatchington - schools 10
Wilbury & West Blatchington 11
Hanover & Elm Grove 12
Kemptown & Black Rock 13
Queens Park 14
London Road station 15
Round Hill 16
Bevendean 17
Hollingbury 18
Central Brighton 19
Sackville 20
Patcham 21
Hove and Wilbury 22
Surrenden 23
Preston 24
Ovingdean 25
Westdene and Withdean 26
Tivoli and Prestonville 27
Saltdean 28
Coldean 29
Tongdean 30
University 31



Priority neighbourhoods for local network improvements, and associated areas and links 

Neighbourhood area reference and priority Neighbourhood   Area-based treatments  Local links  
1 East Brighton/ Whitehawk 

11 – Kemp house Hospital & Whitehawk Hill 
12 - Whitehawk 

Z – Manor Hill: north-south connection between Freshfield Road area and Whitehawk 

FF – racecourse link 

2 Moulsecoomb 1 – East Moulsecoomb  BB – Ashurst Road (across railway) 
3 Portslade 10 - Fishersgate  B – connection to Fishersgate station 
4 Knoll / West Blatchington  6 – Hove Park & Mill View 

D – Nevill Avenue
E – Link to Aldrington station 

5 Hangleton  7 – West Blatchington & Hangleton   
6 Mile Oak & Portslade Village 

10 – Portslade 
11 – Mile Oak 

A – Chalky Road (access to schools) 
7 Hollingdean 2 – Hollingdean 

U – Hollingdean Road 
Y – Moulsecoomb (connection across railway) 

8 Woodingdean 3 – Woodingdean  
9 West Hove    C – Station Road 
10 West Blatchington - schools  5 – West Blatchington - schools   

Types of improvement 

The LCWIP does not include detail about the proposed improvements by route / area, but it is important to highlight some example approaches for this and set out the types of improvements that could be carried out.  

The list below highlights examples of measures which are considered to be best practice, many of which are in place in the city already. Where appropriate, these measures and others will be explored and developed when schemes are taken forward for delivery, which will be subject to further engagement and consultation.   

Improvements for each route or area would be considered as part of initial and detailed designs at a later stage, with measures considered as appropriate for the route or area concerned. Scheme plans would be subject to further consultation.  

The core design principles from the DfT’s LCWIP Technical Guidance are listed below. These have been taken into account when developing the LCWIP network and will also be used when developing specific design solutions for routes and areas.  

Core design principles (Department for Transport’s LCWIP Technical Guidance, 2017): 


  • Network must link to places people want to travel to / from 
  • Quality routes that are consistent and easy to navigate 


  • Provision of direct routes from origin to destination 
  • More direct or as direct as driving the same route 


  • Routes must improve safety and feelings of safety 
  • Consideration to reducing motor vehicle speeds 
  • Remove the need for cyclists to come into close proximity and conflict with motor traffic particularly at junctions 


  • Minimal stopping and starting for cyclists 
  • Smooth surfaces and avoiding steep gradients where possible 
  • Few conflicts with other road users, and between cyclists and pedestrians 


  • The route should be attractive in order to affect whether users choose to walk or cycle 

Types of improvement 

Here are some of the types of improvement we will consider making: 

Widened pavements

Wider pavements cater for the high levels of demand. They allow people of all abilities to use them without difficulty.

Better quality pavements

We can make better pavements by:

  • using better quality surface materials
  • making sure the surface is level
  • maintaining a smooth surface


Full or part-pedestrianisation of streets could happen, with restrictions in place for motor vehicle access. This could be in place only at certain times of the day as in George Street, Hove. 

New pavements

These should cater for 'desire lines', meaning building pavements where people want to walk but may not be able to at the moment.

Continuous pavement at side roads

These will include a raised junction to improve access for pedestrians


We can provide wayfinding maps and information. This can include signposts to destinations including the time it takes to walk or cycle to them.

Pedestrian crossings

We can improve existing crossings by:

  • maximising 'green man' time at signalised crossings
  • changing from two-stage to single-stage crossings
  • reduce crossing distances by narrowing roads at the crossing location
  • giving automatic priority to pedestrians at crossings unless a vehicle arrives. This is being trialled in London currently.

We can also create new signalised, zebra or informal crossings where people want to cross.

Public realm and street furniture

We can improve the public realm and street furniture in the city by:

  • tree planting and planting of other greenery
  • creating parklets (small seating areas or green spaces in verges or parking spaces)
  • providing benches and other seating
  • improving the quality of our pavement materials and public space

You can see examples of these types of improvement at the Valley gardens project in central Brighton.


We can improve the state of our streets by reallocating and repositioning street furniture and signage. We can also ensure that the pavements are well maintained.


We can improve or upgrade existing street lighting.

Low traffic measures

We can put in place Modal filters and Low Traffic Neighbourhoods.

Modal filters close roads using bollards or planters at key entry points.  These prevent through traffic on residential streets. We already have many examples in the city such as Leighton Road.

Low Traffic Neighbourhoods (also called Liveable Neighbourhoods) are a neighbourhood approach to improving the look of streets within the neighbourhood and preventing through-traffic. This can be done by introducing measures such as modal filters.

Speed reduction

We can look at reducing speed limits and introducing other traffic calming measures.

School Streets

We can consider:

  • measures to close streets to traffic around schools in the morning drop off and afternoon pick up periods
  • creating safe spaces for walking, scooting and cycling for the school journey
  • exemptions to these rules are in place for residents, deliveries and people with disabilities

Other transport

We will ensure walking and cycling improvements help out on longer journeys too by linking to bus stops and train stations.

Behaviour change

We will:

  • work with employers, schools, local organisations and developers to encourage and support sustainable travel
  • run campaigns to encourage and support safe and sustainable travel
  • run reward schemes to incentivise sustainable travel, such as the city’s Move for Change scheme.

Fully separated cycle lanes

Cycle lanes that are separated from motor traffic by kerbs. They can be two-directional or one-way such as on Grand Avenue and The Drive.

Stepped track cycle lane

These cycle lanes will have a slight level difference between the road, cycle lane and the pavement. You can see examples of these already on Old Shoreham Road between Dyke Road and The Drive.

Lightly separated cycle lanes

These cycle lanes will be separated using wands or low-height separation and planting

On-street parking would be next to the cycle lane, such as on the A259 cycle lane.

Junction improvements for cyclists

We can improve junctions for cyclists by:

  • introducing an advanced green light for cyclists, such as on Old Shoreham Road and in Valley Gardens.
  • having separate signal stages to traffic to avoid conflicts such as left-turning vehicles
  • adding Advanced Stop Lines (ASL) to allow cyclists space at the front of queuing traffic at junctions to enable them to get a safer head start

Dutch-style roundabouts

This measure involves adding parallel circular lanes for cyclists separate from general traffic with dedicated crossings for pedestrians and cyclists such as with CYCLOPS junctions (Cycle Optimised Protected Signals)

Grade separation

Consideration of bridges and underpasses for pedestrians and cyclists.

Cycle crossing

We can consider adding parallel pedestrian and cycle crossings (signalised or unsignalised) next to each other

Floating bus stops

We can consider making more floating bus stops where the cycle lane runs behind the stop such as the ones on Lewes Road.

Bus stop boarder

These allow cyclists are brought up to pavement level to pass in front of the bus stop, sharing this space with pedestrians.

Removal of centre lines

This involves removal of the central white line on a road to reduce vehicle speeds, such as on Old Shoreham Road between Dyke Road and The Drive.

Waiting and loading restrictions

We can introduce restrictions to ensure safe access to pavement and cycle lane.

Enforcement of offences

Enforcement of parking, cycle lanes, pavement parking and moving traffic offences in order to keep the roads safe and unobstructed.

Contraflow cycle lanes

Contraflow cycle lanes allow two-way cycling on one way streets such as in the North Laine.

Bus and cycle lanes

Bus and cycle lanes combine the two types of lane where there is enough width to do so, such as on Lewes Road.

Coloured surfacing of cycle lanes

Colouring the surface of cycle lanes makes theme easier for people to recognise. We have chosen green as the single colour to use across the whole city.

Cycle parking

We can provide secure cycle parking in residential areas, such as the lockable cycle hangars on Shaftesbury Road. We will work with employees, schools, visitor attractions and other destinations to put nearby secure and on-street cycle parking.

Play Streets

We can encourage Play Streets, resident-led temporary street closures to create a space for residents to use, including for children to play. 

Freight and deliveries

We can encourage greener vehicles for freight, such as e-cargo cycles which are being used by businesses in the city for the E-Cargo Accelerator Project

Cycle repair station

We can consider on-street cycle repair facilities which allow cyclists to repair their cycles when out and about without having to carry equipment. 

Case studies 

  • BTN Bikeshare is in its fifth year of operation and has had almost 3.5 million miles of journeys. The scheme is expanding to include electric bikes and will allow neighbouring authorities to create parallel schemes which would allow hires across a single area covering the entire Greater Brighton area. In future the scheme will also consider how to incorporate micromobility options 
  • The Cycle Superhighways project in Copenhagen has helped increase cycling levels (3million more bike trips annually) by proving a complete protected network for cycling 
  • The Valley Gardens scheme is more than just a transport improvement scheme, opening up public green spaces as well as making active and sustainable travel safer and easier 
  • Cycle training is available across the city, including though the Multicultural Women’s Cycle Club. “When trying to learn cycling and take it up as a hobby, protected lanes are valuable and essential.” – Quote from cycle training participant 

Secure residential cycle parking 

BHCC already installs cycle parking in residential areas and has now committed to providing more secure residential cycle parking in the city, with an initial 100 cycle hangars being rolled out. A process has been developed alongside the LCWIP development, in order to assess demand and provision; locations are scored based on: 

  • Amount of requests 
  • Type of property (house, flat or mixture) 
  • Availability of outside space for cycle storage 
  • Type of cycle 
  • Whether the location is in the priority areas in terms of demand analysis work, which included  
  • assessment of: 
    • National Propensity to Cycle Tool 
    • Population Density 
    • Health Deprivation and Disability 
    • Cycle theft data 
    • LCWIP network routes 

Stage 6: Integration and application

  • Signoff of the document 
  • Continued integration within policies, application for funding bids 
  • Regular updating of the document 

It is important that the LCWIP is embedded and integrated into the council’s wider plans, policies and decision-making so that it: 

  • Forms part of an integrated suite of documents that respond to requirements for transport in an area and ensures that appropriate consideration is given to active travel in all local planning and transport decisions; and 
  • Becomes a ‘live’ document that is continuously evolving but which can also be used to identify opportunities to develop and implement the network. 

The LCWIP will also be influenced by policies, strategies and projects across many areas of the council It will be a key consideration in the planning process in terms of highlighting where investment in the current active travel network is needed; seeking funding or works where developments are likely to put further pressure on the transport network.  

Key policy, strategy and project linkages for the LCWIP include: 

  • Planning policy 
  • Development management 
  • Traffic signals 
  • Highway maintenance 
  • Public Rights of Way 
  • Public health 
  • Travel behaviour change 
  • Sustainability 
  • Economy 
  • Education 
  • Housing 
  • Planning 
  • Regeneration 
  • Visitor economy 
  • Air quality 
  • Road safety 
  • City parks 

The LCWIP will be a live document which will be updated fully every four years and reviewed every two years, including monitoring of progress against the plan. The LCWIP Member Working Group will continue to operate and have oversight of the delivery of the LCWIP.


There are a number of potential sources of funding available to deliver improvements identified in the LCWIP, which include: 

Integrated Transport and Maintenance Block funding

This is provided annually to the council by the government’s Department for Transport (DfT) to enable investment in various transport and highway projects and programmes.

Carbon Neutral Fund and Climate Action Fund

Council budgets to deliver projects to reduce carbon emissions and develop and deliver key recommendations from the city’s Climate Assembly.

Government grants

Government frequently provides opportunities for local authorities to bid competitively for funding opportunities, with differing themes and objectives depending on the focus of the funding.

The council has been successful in securing recent government grants from the Emergency Active Travel Fund and the Active Travel Fund. This funding has assisted in delivering many schemes including Madeira Drive, the temporary Seafront cycle lane and the A23 improvements. We will utilise any further opportunities for government funding for active travel schemes, in line with the LCWIP network.

Government funding can also be made available for active travel improvements such as the cycle rail fund to improve cycle facilities at railway stations.

Developer funding

Through the Planning process, the council as Local Planning Authority will negotiate with developers in order to mitigate any potential impacts of new development or accommodate the expected increased travel demand, especially walking, cycling and public transport.

Developers are asked to pay for, or contribute towards, the cost of the additional infrastructure required. The level of contribution will be related to the scale of the new development and its impact on the local area. For transport, these specific funds can be secured via a legal (Section 106) agreement or works can be agreed that the developer fully pays for.

Alternatively, it is possible for works to be funded from the Community Infrastructure Levy process.

Surplus parking income

This budget is the money remaining after direct costs for parking enforcement, administration and equipment have been paid. It is a legal requirement that any surplus has to be invested into transport and highways.

The majority of parking surplus is spent on providing free bus passes for older people and people with disabilities, which the council has a legal duty to provide.

Money is also invested back into supporting bus services and other transport and highway projects.

Local Economic Partnership (LEP) funding

The Coast to Capital LEP provides funding opportunities for the region and the council has been successful in securing funding for local transport and regeneration projects such as Valley gardens and the BTN BikeShare Scheme.

What happens next? 

The LCWIP sets out the principle of networks of routes and areas and the commitment to active travel improvements on these. 

The detail of specific improvements has not been considered at this stage as this is a strategic document. This will be developed once routes are taken forward for delivery. We will also work with neighbouring authorities to deliver continuous strategic routes across borders when taking schemes forward – there are many links with neighbouring authority strategic routes as shown in the network maps. 

Process for scheme development and delivery 

The process for developing high quality active travel schemes will be the following activities, which are all interlinked. 

  • Understanding local issues, opportunities and challenges 

Consideration of local context including Healthy Streets indicators: 

  • Easy to cross the road 
  • Shade and shelter 
  • Places to stop and rest 
  • Not too noisy 
  • People choose to walk and cycle 
  • People feel safe 
  • Things to see and do 
  • People feel relaxed 
  • Clean air 
  • Everyone feels welcome 

Collaboration with local stakeholders and the public 

Engagement and consultation with the community, this could include: 

  • Surveys 
  • Online mapping / comment tools 
  • Workshops 
  • Sessions with local organisations including schools 
  • Street audits 
  • Focus groups 

Design development 

Consideration of various design documents including: 

  • DfT local transport notes and manuals, Healthy Streets, Gear Change 
  • Best practice from other areas eg London Cycle Design Standards, Planning for Walking Toolkit, TfL 
  • Toolkits and guidance from third sector organisations eg Street Charter Toolkit (RNIB) and Street design guidance for local authorities (Guide Dogs) 

What is consultation? 

Scheme consultations are where the public can have a say about the detail of what we plan to improve in LCWIP routes and areas. Consultations make our plans more effective by helping them to reflect local views. 

The results of consultations help us to understand feedback on plans and how improvements could best be made. They also help us to understand priorities and concerns.  

The principle of routes and areas for improvement is set out in the LCWIP. Schemes will then be developed further and shaped by consultation and engagement with the community and stakeholders. Taking into account feedback from consultations helps to shape the detail of schemes to suit local needs.  

Results are fed back for consideration in the decision-making process where they are balanced against available resource, legislation and competing views. 

What is engagement? 

Engagement involves working with key stakeholders in order to shape proposals further. This could include liaison with local councillors, disability groups, local interest groups and local residents’ groups. Engagement can help us to understand issues in more detail and come up with appropriate solutions in the scheme design.  

Appendix 1 – Strategic network routes for improvements

Route ID  Route name 
1 (priority route) Church Street 
2 (priority route) North Street and Dyke Road 
3 (priority route) Lewes Road
4 (priority route) A23
5 (priority route) Eastern Road / Edward Street 
6 (priority route) A259 – WSCC boundary to Madeira Drive 
7 (priority route) Chesham Road, St George’s Road, Bristol Road & St James’s Street 
8 (priority route) Buckingham Place, Terminus Road, Queens Road & West Street 
9 (priority route) A259 – Marine Parade & Marine Drive 
10 (priority route) New Church Road, Church Road & Western Road 
11 (priority route) Queens Park Road 
12 (priority route)  Old Shoreham Road / New England Road / Viaduct Road / Upper Lewes Road 
13 (priority route) Ditchling Road 
14 (priority route) Upper Hollingdean Road 
15 (priority route) Union Road 
16 (priority route) Sackville Road / Nevill Road / King George VI Avenue 
17 (priority route) Wilson Avenue 
18  Springfield Road 
19  Stanford Avenue & Beaconsfield Road 
20  Trafalgar Road, Locks Hill, Southdown Road & Croft Drive 
21  Elm Grove and Warren Road 
22  Argyle Road and Campbell Road 
23  Boundary Road and Hangleton Road 
24  Hangleton Way and Downland Drive 
25  Vernon Terrace & Montpelier Road 
26  The Avenue 
27  Davigdor Road and Cromwell Road 
28  Portland Road 
29  Basin Road South 
30  Gladstone Road 
31  Carden Avenue 
32  Coldean Lane 
33  Grand Avenue and The Drive 
34  Fox Way and Hangleton Lane 
35  The Upper Drive 
36  Mile Oak Road and High Street 
37  Preston Drove and Millers Road 
38  Rottingdean High Street and Falmer Road 
39  Barcombe Place & Lucraft Road