Using solid fuels safely and legally

Find information about using solid fuels, smoke control areas and choosing a solid fuel appliance.

Introducing solid fuels

Solid fuel (mostly coal) used to be the most popular form of heating for homes in the UK, but from the 1960s natural gas central heating grew in popularity and is now used by the majority of commercial and domestic users. However, since the 1990s solid fuels especially wood logs and pellets are increasing in popularity. 

Burning solid fuels can pollute the air and many cities used to suffer heavy, sooty smogs. In response to these problems the Government passed the first Clean Air Act in 1956, which regulated the use of household solid fuels. Many urban local authorities established Smoke Control Areas under the Clean Air Act 1968: these are areas where special provisions apply if people wish to burn solid fuels. 

The simplest way to burn solid fuels is in an open fireplace. However, open fires are inefficient - most of the heat is lost up the chimney and this method can potentially be the most polluting due to the lower temperatures involved. If you live in a Smoke Control Area you are restricted in the fuels you can burn. 

If solid fuels are used, you must ensure that both your appliance and chimney are regularly maintained to keep the household safe. It is also important to make sure you stay within the law when a stove or solid fuel appliance is fitted and comply with any conditions of the legislation where you live. 

Smoke Control Areas 

Brighton & Hove has 5 Smoke Control Areas covering much of the Hanover, Lewes Road, Bevendean and the city centre areas. There are no Smoke Control Areas in Hove. 

An interactive map of the Brighton areas is available here.

Stoves and boilers 

In a Smoke Control Area, you must use an exempt appliance f you wish to burn wood or coal. Note that an exempt appliance will only be legal for use in a smoke control area with authorised fuels. For example, if the appliance is only exempt for burning wood you must not use it to burn coal.  

Bonfires, chimineas and barbeques (BBQs)

Chimineas and BBQs are not covered by Smoke Control legislation, but please show consideration to your neighbours and do not create excessive smoke or odour. 

Who should install my appliance? 

If solid fuel is your choice  it's a legal requirement for solid fuel stoves and boilers to be fitted in accordance with Part J of the Building Regulations. If your installer has been accredited as a competent person no action is needed after the installation is complete. If they are not accredited, or you have fitted it yourself, you will need to get building regulation approval. 

The most widely used competent persons scheme is run by HETAS. You can search for HETAS approved installers on their website. There are also other competent person schemes. 

Ideally, when in the process of buying a home with a solid fuel appliance you should ask to see evidence that it has building regulations approval or has been installed by a member of a competent persons scheme such as HETAS. 

The building regulations are there for your safety. Solid fuel appliances can be dangerous if they are not installed correctly and well maintained. Badly fitted appliances can risk carbon monoxide building up in the home.  

Is my chimney in good condition? 

If your chimney has not been used for some time it is essential to have it inspected and swept before using solid fuels. Defective chimneys can leak dangerous gases such as carbon monoxide into your home. 

Using solid fuel appliances 

Solid fuel appliances are very different to the gas and electric heating systems that most of us are familiar with. You will need to familiarise yourself with the maintenance requirements of your system and ensure that you burn good quality fuel. 

Maintenance and chimney sweeping 

Solid fuel appliances may appear simple, but they require regular maintenance to order to stay safe, clean and efficient.  You should ensure that ash is removed at least once a day, the fluways and throat plates are cleaned at least once a month and that grates and firebricks are in good condition. Your installer will be able to provide an appropriate maintenance schedule. You can also read a HETAS information leaflet

If other people are occupying your home, for example if you rent out the property or you have a carer, you must provide them with guidance on using and maintaining your solid fuel appliance. Most people are not familiar with solid fuel appliances and their maintenance requirements. 

It is essential to keep your chimney clean by sweeping it at least once a year. You can find a chimney sweep through the National Association of Chimney Sweeps, The Guild of Master Chimney Sweeps or HETAS.

Buying fuel

Image of a wood pile

Logs should be stored in a well ventilated stack in a sunny position before being taken indoors.  

Good quality fuels ensure that your appliance operates cleanly and efficiently. Poor quality fuels may burn inefficiently, create pollution and even damage your appliance. 

The most common wood fuel is logs, although the various types of wood available burn in different ways. A good wood fuel supplier will be able to provide advice. You should also be aware that wood needs to be seasoned (dried) before it can be burnt, which can take up to two years. Most fuel suppliers can provide wood that it already seasoned. 

To help us manage elm disease in the city, please don’t buy logs for fuel if the supplier cannot guarantee the wood isn't elm. 

Other wood fuels include wood chips and pellets. These are commonly used in more complex appliances such as wood fuel boilers, and your appliance manufacture or installer should be able to provide you with advice on appropriate fuel quality standards. 

Finally before burning solid fuels should be kept dry, by keeping them indoors or under a secure cover. Wet fuels burn at inefficiently and can create smoke emissions.

Discarded wood 

There are many sources of discarded wood, for example, fallen branches, carpentry off-cuts, damaged fence panels, old furniture and wood from skips.  Not all wood is suitable for burning and you should take great care before using it. Common issues can be: 

Wood needs to be left to dry (seasoned) before it can be burnt. Burning wet or freshly felled wood can produce large amounts of smoke 

Wood can be coated with preservatives such as varnish, creosote or lead paint. If this is burned toxic fumes including metals and organics can be released to the air. 

Smoke Control Areas and legal background 

The council has statutory powers to control smoke from domestic and commercial sources. The Clean Air Act allows local authorities to designate Smoke Control Areas (SCA's) which place legal restrictions on combustion and the use of certain appliances and fuels. The restriction also apply to the sale of fuels in or adjacent to a Smoke Control Area. 

The original Clean Air Act (1956) was set up to tackle particulate and sulphurous smog problems. The urban "Pea Soupers", of the past were a mixture of fog and pollution arising from common coal burning which had very detrimental respiratory heath effects on those living in urban areas.  

For some time road traffic has been the dominant contributor to local airborne pollution. That said since the last update to the Clean Act (1993), alternatives to gas fired central heating such as wood and coal burning have become more popular. The SCA is in place to minimise contributions from domestic and commercial fireplaces to ambient air pollution. 

Smoke Control Areas in Brighton & Hove 

There are 5 Smoke Control Areas in Brighton. They were all declared under The Clean Air Acts, 1956 and 1968. The declarations were made between 1974 and 1981. This map shows the 5 areas.

The following describes the 5 areas (1 through to 5) in order as they were declared: 

The Brighton No. 1 (Lower Bevendean) Smoke Control Order 1974 approved by the Brighton Borough Council on the 9 May 1974, and confirmed by the Secretary of State for the Environment on the 5 August 1974 and operative from 1 October 1975. 

The Brighton No. 2  Smoke Control Order 1974 approved by the Brighton Borough Council on 8 October 1975.  Confirmed by the Secretary of State for the Environment, with modification on the 5 February 1976. Operative from 1 October 1976. 

The Brighton No. 3 Smoke Control Order 1974 approved by the Brighton Borough Council on 18 May 1978. Confirmed by the Secretary of State for the Environment, with modification, on the 1 September 1978. Operative from 1 May 1979. 

The Brighton No. 4 Smoke Control Order 1974 approved by the Brighton Borough Council on 2 February 1979. Confirmed by the Secretary of State for the Environment, with modification on the 23 April 1979.  Operative from 1 November 1979 

The Brighton No. 5 Smoke Control Order 1979 approved by the Brighton Borough Council on 13 December 1979.  Confirmed by the Secretary of State for the Environment, with modification, on the 6 February 1981. Operative from 1 October 1981. 

Clean Air Act compliance and legal requirements for Smoke Control Areas 

Suppliers must show manufacture certification that the appliances they are selling are on this list for lawful use in the SCA. Operators need to have clear instruction that the fuel can be used with their solid fuel appliance without creating excess pollution and is authorised for use in an SCA. Manufactures selling uncertified fuels for use in the SCA for example petroleum coke or sulphurous coals risk prosecution under the Clean Air Act.