Have your say

We are currently developing our updated Air Quality Action Plan and would like to hear your views on this draft document.

Read our Draft Air Quality Action Plan before answering our survey.

To view the plan:

Have your say

The consultation will go live on Monday 16 May.

Foreword 

Brighton & Hove is a place we are proud to call home. A thriving, vibrant cosmopolitan place where hundreds of thousands of people live and work and millions come to visit every year. It’s a city that deserves the very best, and that includes breathing clean air. 

We know that poor air quality can have a significant impact on our health, especially for those with heart problems or respiratory conditions like asthma and lung disease. 

As awareness of the health impacts of pollution has increased, so has our desire for continued improvement. In 2021 the World Health Organisation set more stringent air quality guidelines which they recommend cities work towards to deliver cleaner, healthier outdoor air. For climate, health, and security of supply it has never been more important to reduce dependence on fossil fuels. 

We’re making it easier and safer for people to travel actively and sustainably, improving our public spaces, building new walking, and cycling infrastructure, helping people to reconnect with nature and drive down toxic emissions for a cleaner city. We already have an Ultra-Low Emission Zone (ULEZ) for buses and are working with bus companies and rail operators to further reduce emissions from public transport. We are working with schools and businesses to increase active, inclusive, and accessible travel and help people make emission-free travel choices.  

We’re also re-wilding a former golf course at Waterhall and planting thousands of trees to create a new woodland on Carden Hill. 

Local planning policies require developers to seek opportunities to improve air quality in locations where they are proposing new developments. We will continue to run education campaigns to highlight clean home heating and avoid emissions from gas combustion, open fires and stoves. 

Air pollution is a major concern for residents and this Air Quality Action Plan will map out how we can work together on long-term solutions to tackle poor air quality wherever it occurs in the city. As part of this we’ll be continuing and improving our air quality monitoring and making the results publicly available. 

By building sustainable transport infrastructure, an electric vehicle charging network, and offering rewards for walking, cycling, and using public transport we can support people to take action to reduce emissions and improve air quality across the city.  

It's great to see the progress we’ve already made on air quality and reducing pollution, but we know we have much more to do to truly make Brighton & Hove a clean air city. 

Amy Heley 

Co-Chair of Environment, Transport and Sustainability Committee 

Introduction

Brighton & Hove is one of the UK’s most attractive and unique cities to live in and visit. The city has a diverse and growing population of around 290,000 and welcomes over 12 million visitors every year. This can create both challenges and opportunities.  

The city is tightly constrained and compact, situated between the South Downs National Park and the sea. These ‘natural boundaries’ define and limit the outward expansion of the city, and the compact built-up area is roughly half of the city’s geographical area (8,267 hectares). 

The city is a regional transport hub, with the A23/M23 linking it to London/M25, and the A27 providing major east/west links. Car ownership in the city is the lowest in the South East region and one of the lowest nationally. Bus patronage, cycling and pedestrian movements in and out of the city centre have continued to increase since 2000. Progress with active travel can be found at ‘Move For Change.’   

As well as the natural boundaries of the sea and the South Downs National Park, the city faces further challenges with its historic and ageing Victorian road network and structures, which are not designed to cope with modern traffic demands. The built environment can also contribute to emissions in enclosed spaces. The strategic road corridors of the A270, A23 and A259 converge in the city centre which, together with topography, leads to congestion and high levels of pollution. The city also has regular influxes of visitors and hosts many events, including a month-long arts festival in May and Pride weekend in August. 

Air pollution is of concern to residents. The council takes part in the annual National Highways and Transportation (NHT) survey which consists of a randomised sample of residents from across the city. Satisfaction with both traffic pollution and traffic levels and congestion is poor compared to other local authorities around the country. Satisfaction levels for traffic pollution have returned to pre-Covid (2019) levels at 36%, but have fallen for travel levels and congestion, from 38% in 2019 to 33% in 2021.  

Many achievements have been delivered since the previous 2015 Air Quality Action Plan (AQAP); these have contributed towards improving air quality in the city and include: 

  • a bus ULEZ and a cleaner bus fleet 
  • development of the city’s first Local Cycling and Walking Infrastructure Plan (LCWIP) which identifies routes and areas for active travel improvements 
  • City Plan (development plan to 2030) 
  • a joint (BHCC/NHS) Health and Wellbeing Strategy 
  • provision of over 200 electric vehicle charging points, including hubs for taxis 
  • discounts on parking permits for ultra-low emission vehicles 

There is more to do, and we have structured a range of proposed actions under the following 5 priorities: 

Priority 1: Increase active travel, support mode shift and reduce the need to travel 

Priority 2: Encourage and support uptake of ultra-low and zero exhaust vehicles 

Priority 3: Improve monitoring and public awareness 

Priority 4: Reduce emissions from buildings and new development 

Priority 5 Partnership working 

This revised Air Quality Action Plan (2022 to 2027) has been produced as part of our statutory duties under the Environment Act 1995, as required by the Local Air Quality Management (LAQM) framework. 

Where an area is identified as at risk of non-compliance with legal limits of Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), an Air Quality Action Plan is needed. 

This plan is required for the 6 Air Quality Management Areas (AQMAs) that were declared by the council in 2020, because monitoring and modelling showed a risk of non-compliance with toxic NO2 and therefore a danger to public health. 

The plan includes evidence which identifies sources of emissions (gases and smoke) that impact most on life in the city. It outlines actions and priorities to improve air quality which will not only benefit residents and visitors to the city but also the wider Sussex region.  

Progress on measures set out within this plan will be reported within the council’s annual status reports, and the AQAP will be updated in 2027. 

Air quality in context

Air quality, wellbeing and health are dependent on the level of airborne pollutants in the air both in the short term (daily) and longer term (throughout the calendar year). This pollution (emitted locally or somewhere else) is almost entirely man-made eg caused by burning fossil fuels for heating and transport or mechanical processes like demolition, brake and tyre wear.  

There are many forms of airborne pollutants that can affect human health, but the main ones today are Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), tiny particulate matter (PM2.5) and the courser PM10 that includes smoke and fine dust. Sulphur Dioxide (SO2 is also an airborne pollutant which has reduced substantially since measures such as ultra-low sulphur petrol and diesel (2007) and vehicle diesel particulate filters (2011) were introduced. The introduction of additional electric trains and less coal burning, in power stations and domestically, has also contributed to this reduction.   

NO2 is one of the more common forms of airborne pollution which is mainly caused by chemical reactions with hot combustion processes, most notably from older diesel engines, generators, and gas boilers. 

Pollution and health

Air pollution is increasingly more understood and affects our health in a variety of ways. Long term effects on health can, at first, go unnoticed but can reduce life expectancy due to its effects on the body. Airborne pollution is a strong contributor to the 170 early deaths that occur each year in Brighton & Hove. 

It can be a contributing factor in the onset of heart disease and cancer, and also affects the most vulnerable in society: children, the elderly and those with existing heart and lung conditions. There is no safe level of PM2.5, this can cause stress to the circulatory system leading to heart attacks and has increased association with cognitive decline like the impacts of lead in the 20th century. Fresh clean air is essential for productivity, exercise, learning and sleep. 

The weather has a significant short-term effect on air quality. A windy or rainy day can help to disperse and refresh airborne pollution, but a series of calm days can have the opposite effect allowing pollution to become relatively concentrated and more hazardous to health. Periods of cold weather can see pollution levels rise as more households and businesses need to heat buildings and diesel exhaust reduction is less effective. The 1956 Clean Air Act was one of the first major pieces of legislation on air quality and was introduced after the infamous London smog of the 1950s which led to the deaths of thousands of people.  

Public Health England state that there is also often a strong correlation with equalities issues because areas with poor air quality are also often less affluent areas (Air Quality – A Briefing for Directors of Public Health, 2017). More affordable, but poorer quality, housing is often sited next to busy roads and junctions where pollution levels are relatively high. Nine-year old Ella Adoo-Kissi-Debrah died in 2013. In 2020 a coroner determined that air pollution was a contributory cause of her illness and death. This was the first recorded case of its kind in the UK. 

In 2017, air pollution in the UK contributed to the deaths of up to 36,000 people with a total estimated healthcare cost to the NHS and Local Governments of £157 million.  

The Brighton & Hove context

Brighton & Hove's first Air Quality Action Plan (AQAP) was produced in 2006, with second and third editions in 2011 and 2015. Since 2015, public awareness of poor air quality in the UK has grown substantially. 

Details and charts of long-term monitoring results up to the end of 2020 can be found in the council’s air quality Annual Status Reports (ASRs). (ASR 2021 and archives). Pollution levels within the city are assessed against air quality standards which are prescribed in national legislation. 

This AQAP has been developed in recognition of the legal requirement on the local authority to work towards Air Quality Strategy (AQS) objectives under Part IV of the Environment Act 1995 and to meet the requirements of the Local Air Quality Management (LAQM) statutory process. The plan has also been developed alongside a number of supporting council strategies which feature air quality as a main strand within them. 

Brighton & Hove City Council Corporate Plan 2020 to 2023 

Building a sustainable city is one of the 6 main outcomes identified in the overarching Corporate Plan for the city. 

Within this key outcome, actions referenced include developing an active and sustainable travel network, with focus on transport interchanges, ultra-low and zero exhaust buses and investment in walking, cycling and traffic signalling. As well as a commitment to install hundreds of on-street charging points, which is well underway. 

More information on the Corporate Plan 2020 to 2023

Economic Strategy 2018 

One of the key themes of the Economic Strategy is building a sustainable city and identifies that ‘The Sustainable City’ theme will need to respond to a number of the city’s key environmental challenges: including using less energy, waste reduction, ultra-low and zero carbon energy generation, availability and use of sustainable transport, jobs and materials and, ultimately, to better balance the demands of an evolving economy within the limits of our environment. 

Go to The full Economic Strategy for the city page. 

Local Transport Plan (LTP4) 

In 2015, we published our fourth Local Transport Plan (LTP4) which outlined a number of transport objectives for the city. One of these objectives was encouraging and enabling healthy and active travel choices, with a focus on minimising the impact of transport-related air and noise pollution on local people. 

The next Local Transport Plan (LTP5) is currently in development and an initial consultation on the direction it is taking showed that nearly 75% of respondents were concerned about poor air quality.  

Brighton & Hove Joint Health and Wellbeing Strategy 

The latest Joint Health and Wellbeing Strategy 2019 to 2030 outlines ways in which Brighton & Hove can be a place which helps to keep people healthy, and one of the core aspects is that air quality will be improved. The Joint Strategic Needs Assessment includes a chapter on air quality.  

City Plan (Part One) 

City Plan Part One was adopted in 2016 and seeks to create genuinely sustainable communities through encouraging mixed-use developments, high-quality and well-designed places. Developments should enable people to make better choices about their need for travel and City Plan recommends that new developments should take note of the actions set out in the AQAP. 

City Plan Part One includes Development Area polices. Since the last AQAP, City Plan Part Two is currently in the later stages of development with an anticipated adoption timescale of autumn 2022. It includes Policy DM40 - Protection of the Environment and Health – Pollution and Nuisance. This requires development to seek opportunities to reduce pollution through appropriate mitigation; support the implementation of the Air Quality Action Plan and provide Air Quality Impact Assessments. 

Air Quality and The Climate Emergency 

Air Quality is not the only issue facing the city. Brighton & Hove was one of the first cities in the country to declare a climate and biodiversity emergency, and the council has recently adopted a Carbon Neutral Programme to deliver our commitment to become carbon neutral by 2030. This sets the direction for action on climate change by the council, partners and residents across the city for the rest of the decade.  

The Carbon Neutral Programme  

The Carbon Neutral Programme is structured over the following key priority areas: 

  • Travel and transport  
  • Energy and water 
  • Waste 
  • Built environment 
  • Nature and environment (food, land use and agriculture) 

There are sets of actions targeted within each of the key priority areas including many which also cover reducing other air pollutants alongside carbon: 

  • Promote and facilitate the use of zero exhaust vehicles 
  • Improve air quality especially in areas of high population density 
  • Reduce carbon and other emissions from council-owned vehicles  
  • Secure sustainable development in the city through planning policies and City Plan 
  • Engagement and behaviour change campaigns 

In autumn 2020, the city hosted a Climate Assembly which brought together a representative group of around 50 residents to discuss how we can reduce transport-related emissions over the next decade. 

It is important to note that there are some key distinctions between reducing carbon emissions and improving air quality. Carbon dioxide is not considered to be an air pollutant, and so the measures in this action plan are not directly aimed at reducing CO2 levels in Brighton & Hove. 

However, moving forward, climate emergency measures to avoid exhaust and chimney emissions can be beneficial for the quality of the air we all breathe. Action to reduce gas emissions from buildings will be required with the ‘future homes standard’. It will be most important to avoid emissions from vehicles and buildings to urban streets where space for fresh air and greenery is limited. Actions to reduce carbon emissions, and activities to increase green infrastructure and green space in urban areas helps reduce particles, increase shade as well as absorbing carbon dioxide. 

The requirement to reduce pollutants which can damage human health when inhaled is distinguishable from greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming. This report includes some cross-referencing to requirements to work towards carbon neutrality.  

Air Quality in Sussex and Greater Brighton

When a local authority identifies places with relevant human exposure where national standards for the year or short-term are not likely to be achieved, it must declare an Air Quality Management Area. This area could be just one or two streets around a junction, or a much wider area. The number of AQMAs in Sussex are shown below. 

West Sussex 

Local Authority (the areas vary by size and population) Number of AQMAs 

Chichester District Council 

Horsham District Council 

Worthing Borough Council 

Adur District Council 

Crawley Borough Council 

Mid Sussex District Council 

East Sussex  

Local Authority 2  Number of AQMAs

Lewes District Council 

Brighton & Hove 

Local Authority 2  Number of AQMAs 

Brighton & Hove City Council 

Each year a Sussex Air Pollution Monitoring Network report is produced to demonstrate the trends and pollutant levels across the area. The latest report (2020) shows the running annual mean concentration for PM10 had a general downward trend over the past decade. Investment in additional monitoring is required to assess long term trends in local and regional PM2.5 concentrations. For NO2 there has also been a downward trend since 2013.  

Get more information on which sites are used and reports from previous years

The Sussex Air Quality Alert is a free air pollution prediction service provided by Sussex-air. It is aimed at supporting those with underlying health conditions in the management of their breathing and wellbeing. Subscription is either by an app or via the Sussex-air webpages. Recipients then receive notifications when pollution predictions have potential to impact on their health. In early 2021 there were 1,171 subscribers across Sussex. 

Monitoring air quality data and trends in Brighton & Hove  

Using approved regulatory techniques, the council has monitored air quality for more than 25 years. Results, trends, and maps are set out in past Progress Reports and Annual Status Reports (ASRs)

There are 2 roadside and one background automatic monitoring stations across the city. The stations monitor Particulate Matter (PM2.5) and Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) and results are reported annually. 

The council also has 60 diffusion tubes across the city which are simple cost-effective ways to measure monthly NO2, derive annual concentrations and identify long-term trends.  

As a statutory duty Local Air Quality Management (LAQM) has focused on toxic NO2. This is because roadside monitoring consistently shows that is the most common air pollutant in Brighton & Hove. The greatest impact can be gained by reducing NO2 emissions from traffic in urban areas, particularly where there is a high concentration of pedestrians and residential areas. 

NO2 is the principal source of nitrates (NO3) which combine with other pollutants to make up a common constituent of PM2.5 (Particulate Matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 microns). 

As outdoor concentrations of airborne PM10 (Particulate Matter less than ten microns) in the city do not exceed current English standards, there has not been a statutory requirement for the council to declare Air Quality Management Areas for PM10. This situation will be reviewed if standards become more stringent and new policy sets out statutory duties on local authorities. Future UK particulate standards and the dates when they need to be met by will be open to national consultation. 

Air Quality Data and World Health Organisation Targets 

The outdoor pollution targets are different to emission rates from an exhaust such as a vehicle tailpipe or building chimney. 

Concentrations of pollutants that people breathe are usually represented as micrograms (one-millionth of a gram) per cubic metre of outdoor air, or in shortened form, μg/m3

In 2005 the World Health Organisation (WHO) set advisory guidelines for pollutants in outdoor air. The guidelines became more stringent in September 2021 but have not yet been adopted by national government or devolved administrations. However, London Boroughs are working towards achieving these by the early 2030s, to provide the extra benefits to public health it is it thought these levels would bring. 

Following consideration of the Environment Bill in October 2021, the House of Commons was asked if it disagreed with the Lord’s amendments for inclusion of a PM2.5 national target based on the 2005 WHO guideline of 10µg/m3 as an annual mean. Brighton & Hove’s 3 MPs, however, effectively voted for more stringent health standards for air quality. In line with this preference Brighton & Hove City Council proposes to work towards surpassing the national air standard including lobbying for English PM2.5 targets sooner than 2040. Particulate standards have for some time been more stringent in Scotland. 

Therefore, the proposed local NO2 objective for Brighton & Hove prior to 2027 is to reach an annual mean of 30 µg/m3 outdoor NO2. This is 25% lower than the minimum UK legal requirement of 40 µg/m3 These targets are indicative of our commitment to further improve local air quality, beyond UK standards, to provide better health protection across the population. 

The table below shows the main sets of Standards and Guidelines for NO2 and PM in outdoor air from the UK Government, WHO guidelines and proposed local objectives. 

The standards and guidelines are for breathable air and not emissions that are quantified releases to air (atmosphere) from exhausts, chimneys fires or mechanical processes such tyre wear. With good ventilation, emissions mix with fresh air and disperse and dilute in the environment.

Nitrogen Dioxide NO2 

Averaging period where people spend time  English Limits set 2010  WHO guideline 2005  Brighton & Hove AQAP objective by 2027  WHO 2021 London objective by 2033 
1 hour 200 µg/m3 not to be exceeded more than 18 hours a year  <150 µg/m3  Not applicable
24 hours Not applicable 50 µg/m3  25 µg/m3 
Annual average  40 µg/m3 that is 36 µg/m3 beyond all reasonable doubt  30 µg/m3  10 µg/m3 

Particles PM2.5 

Averaging period where people spend time  English Limits set 2010  WHO guideline 2005  Brighton & Hove AQAP objective by 2027  WHO 2021 London objective by 2033 
24 hours Not applicable 25 µg/m3  15 µg/m3 
Annual average 25 µg/m3  10 µg/m3  10 µg/m3  5 µg/m3 
Three year average  Target 15% reduction in concentrations at urban background  

Particles PM10 

Averaging period where people spend time  English Limits set 2010  WHO guideline 2005  Brighton & Hove AQAP objective by 2027  WHO 2021 London objective by 2033 
24 hours 50 µg/m3 not to be exceeded more than 35 times a year   Not applicable  50 µg/m3  45 µg/m3 
Annual average 40 µg/m3   20 µg/m3  20 µg/m3  15 µg/m3 

Source apportionment 

Government guidance asks that where local authorities have identified outdoor air quality that does not meet legal requirements, source apportionment will determine the contributory sources. This varies for different transport corridors and areas of the city. 

Source Apportionment is the identification of ambient air pollution sources and the quantification of their contribution to pollution levels. 

 

Air Quality in Brighton & Hove

The AQAP measures presented in this document are targeted towards the predominant sources of emissions within the city, especially where these contribute to poor air quality in the six AQMAs declared or amended in 2020. Air Quality Management Areas are declared when there is an exceedance, or likely exceedance, of a legally binding air quality standard. It does not include locations where people are not present for the duration of the averaging period, for example the central reservation of a main road. 

The 6 AQMAs within the city are shown in Figure 1, and their dates of declaration are shown below. 

Figure 1: Brighton & Hove NO2 AQMAs declared or amended in 2020 

Figure 1 - a map labelling the 6 Air Quality Management Areas (AQMAs) across Brighton & Hove.

Brighton & Hove NO2 AQMAs declaration dates 

AQMA 

Location 

Date of declaration 

AQMA1 

Central areas and main routes into the city centre 

Declared in 2013, amended in 2020 

AQMA2 

Rottingdean High Street 

Declared in 2013, confirmed 2020 

AQMA3 

South-West Portslade 

Declared in 2020 

AQMA4 

Sackville Road/Old Shoreham Road junction 

Declared in 2020 

AQMA5 

The Drove-South Road and Preston Road 

Declared in 2013, amended in 2020 

AQMA6 

Eastern Road (Royal Sussex County Hospital) 

Declared in 2020 

Brighton & Hove’s first AQMA was declared in 2004, included the A23 and A270 and was subsequently amended.

Air Quality Assessment 

The 6 declared AQMAs have shown evidence of exceeding national air quality standards for NO2 or require at least three more typical years of monitoring to be certain that UK air quality standards are met. 

AQMA1 – Central areas and main routes into the city centre 

AQMA1 covers several kilometres of the city centre including 4 main arterial routes as well as the current bus ULEZ which is in operation between Castle Square and Palmeira Square.

Figure 2 below shows levels of NO2 in and around AQMA1. The heatmap presents outdoor pollution concentrations prior to COVID-19 which altered the amount and type of traffic. 

Figure 2: Brighton & Hove AQMA1 NO2 levels

As this area covers a broad range of arterial routes and central locations with differing vehicle types, it is discussed in 5 distinct areas below. The map labels show established diffusion tube monitoring site names in the area and annual levels of NO2 recorded at these sites.

Labelled points are diffusion tube monitor names with NO2 concentrations prior to COVID-19 travel restrictions. Pollution maps are based on a computer-based dispersion model and pre-COVID traffic flows. 

Figure 3: AQMA1 North Street and Western Road (ULEZ)  

Some of the highest UK NO2 levels south of London have been recorded along North Street which is part of the city centre ULEZ. The area has very high visitor numbers with mostly commercial units and some residential and hotel use. 

The introduction of cleaner diesel and hybrid buses in this area has led to reductions in bus emissions which has helped to improve air quality in this area substantially. North Street has seen the biggest falls in NO2 compared to anywhere in Sussex, with half as much noxious pollution compared with 2013/14. 

AQMA1 ULEZ area NO2 improvement required

Location 

2019 N02 Level 

Improvement between 2014 to 2019 

Reduction since 2019 needed to meet UK legal requirement by 

Reduction needed to meet local objective by 

North Street 

49µg/m3 

28% 

26% 

39% 

Western Road 

38µg/m3 

24% 

5% 

21% 

To surpass the UK air quality standard for NO2 and reach our local target of 30 µg/m3 a 39% reduction in NO2 is required on North Street and a 21% reduction is required on Western Road compared to 2019 levels.  

There has been progress towards these aims during 2021 and the council has been successful in its recent bid for almost £500,000 of DEFRA funds to continue with exhaust upgrades to the bus fleet during 2022. 

Prior to the pandemic, source apportionment indicated that buses accounted for the majority of NO2 along North Street (63%). Similarly Western Road was modelled with NO2 contributions from buses at 43%. Source apportionment prior to the pandemic is apportioned as shown in Figure 4. 

Figure 4: Source Apportionment AQMA1 ULEZ Area 2019 

North Street

62% buses and coaches

12% domestic and commercial space heating

11% minibuses and diesel cars

6% regional background

5% heavy goods vehicles

3% light goods vehicles and vans

1% petrol cars and motorbikes

Western Road

43% buses and coaches

20% domestic and commercial

20% minibuses and diesel cars

8% regional background

6% heavy goods vehicles

2% light goods vehicles and vans

1% petrol cars and motorbikes

 AQMA1 Brighton Station and Queens Road Area 

Figure 5: AQMA 1 Brighton Station and Queens Road Area

This part of AQMA1 covers the main arrival point for rail passengers into Brighton station, Queens Road down to North Street, as well as the route along Terminus Road up to Seven Dials.  

Taxi pick-up and drop-off at the station frontage was moved to the east side of the station in 2019, meaning lower emissions from taxis are now in a more open area with lower pedestrian footfall and general traffic. 

NO2 levels have improved substantially around Queens Road (which includes the front of the rail station) and early indications show sustained improvement and compliance with national standards for the majority of this area. 

AQMA1 Brighton Station and Queens Road area NO2 improvement required

Location 

2019 N02 Level 

Improvement between 2014 to 2019 

Reduction since 2019 needed to meet UK legal requirement 

Reduction needed to meet local objective 

Terminus Road 

38 µg/m3 

30% 

5% 

21% 

Frederick Place 

38 µg/m3 

15% 

5% 

21% 

Continued improvement is still required in this area to achieve our targets prior to 2027. In particular, for the hill climb on Terminus Road and the NO2 hotspot on Frederick Place, North Laine; where a further 21% reduction in outdoor NO2 is required in order to surpass the local objective. 

For Queens Road prior to the pandemic, source apportionment modelling indicated 27% of NO2 was from buses, 22% from diesel cars, 6% from HGVs and 9% from vans, with the remainder from gas boilers, petrol cars and other sources as shown below. 

Some diesel trains still operate on routes to the west. Most other trains are powered by electric so their contribution to local pollution is negligible. 

Figure 6: Source Apportionment AQMA1 Brighton Station and Queens Road Area 2019 

Brighton Station and Queens Road

27% buses and coaches

25% domestic and commercial space heating

22% mini buses and diesel cars

10% regional background

9% light goods vehicles and vans

6% heavy goods vehicles

1% petrol cars and motorbikes

AQMA 1 A23  

The area is a major bus route as well as being part of the main north-south route through the city centre, meaning it is used by a range of vehicle types.  

Figure 7: AQMA 1 A23

AQMA1 London Road and Preston Circus area NO2 improvement required

Location 

2019 N02 Level 

Improvement between 2014 to 2019 

Reduction needed to meet UK legal requirement 

Reduction needed to meet local objective 

London Road 

53µg/m3 

31% 

32% 

44% 

New England Road 

44 µg/m3 

17% 

18% 

32% 

Beaconsfield Road 

33 µg/m3 

15% 

Already reached 

9% 

Viaduct Terrace 

45 µg/m3 

28% 

20% 

33% 

Grand Parade 

44 µg/m3 

16% 

18% 

31% 

A 44% reduction in annual NO2 on London Road is required to achieve our local target. 

For New England Road a 32% in annual NO2 is required to achieve 30 µg/m3 NO2

Prior to the pandemic, source apportionment on London Road (between Cheapside and Oxford Street) indicated the largest proportion of NO2 emissions came from buses (39%) with significant contributions from medium sized diesel vehicles. Gas combustion in boilers is also an important contributor to NO2 in the area. Full source apportionment is shown below. 

Figure 9: Source Apportionment AQMA1 London Road 2019 

London Road

39% buses and coaches

20% minibuses and diesel cars

15% heavy goods vehicles

15% domestic and commercial

6% regional background

4% light goods vehicles and vans

1% petrol cars and motorbikes

Prior to the pandemic, for roads connected with the busy junction at Preston Circus, NO2 was apportioned as follows.

Figure 10: Source Apportionment AQMA1 Preston Circus Area 2019 

New England Road

49% Minibuses and diesel cars

22% domestic and commercial

9% regional background

8% light goods vehicles and vans

7% heavy goods vehicles

4% buses and coaches

1% petrol cars and motorbikes

Beaconsfield Road

43% Minibuses and diesel cars

24% domestic and commercial

11% regional background

8% buses and coaches

7% heavy goods vehicles

6% light goods vehicles and vans

1% petrol cars and motorbikes

Viaduct Terrace

45% Minibuses and diesel cars

23% domestic and commercial

16% light goods vehicles and vans

6% regional background

5% heavy goods vehicles

4% buses and coaches

1% petrol cars and motorbikes

AQMA1 Lewes Road and Hollingdean Road 

Figure 11: AQMA 1 Lewes Road and Hollingdean Road Area

AQMA1 Lewes Road Hollingdean Road area NO2 improvement required 

Location 

2019 N02 Level 

Improvement between 2014 to 2019 

Reduction needed to meet UK legal requirement 

Reduction needed to meet local objective 

Lewes Road (north of Elm Grove) 

58µg/m3 

Monitor in different place 

40% 

48% 

Lewes Road Coombe Terrace 

37µg/m3 

17% 

5% 

19% 

Hollingdean Road 

41µg/m3 

13% 

12% 

27% 

For NO2 hotspots on Lewes Road (north of Elm Grove) an improvement of 40% is required to meet UK air quality standards. Additional improvement beyond that will be required to achieve the local target set out in this AQAP.  

Prior to the pandemic, modelling source apportionment for NO2 along this transport corridor was as follows.

Figure 12: Source Apportionment AQMA1 Lewes Road Hollingdean Road Area 2019 

Lewes Road (north of Elm Grove)

33% Minibuses and diesel cars

25% buses and coaches

18% domestic and commercial

10% heavy goods vehicles

8% regional background

5% light goods vehicles and vans

1% petrol cars and motorbikes

1% petrol cars and motorbikes

Lewes Road Coombe Terrace

36% Minibuses and diesel cars

23% domestic and commercial

15% regional background

14% buses and coaches

7% heavy goods vehicles

4% light goods vehicles and vans

1% petrol cars and motorbikes

Hollingdean Road

51% Minibuses and diesel cars

22% domestic and commercial

10% regional background

7% heavy goods vehicles

6% light goods vehicles and vans

3% buses and coaches

1% petrol cars and motorbikes

There are a mix of emission sources influencing the air quality along this major transport corridor and development area. Diesel cars and vans are the main contributors to NO2 along the corridor. A key action of the AQAP is to further reduce bus emissions which will benefit air quality especially along the route, that has a variety of business uses, retail, residential and high-rise student accommodation. 

AQMA 2 – Rottingdean High Street 

The coastal village of Rottingdean is surrounded by part of the South Downs National Park and has good clean air quality in the surrounding countryside. AQMA2 is influenced by road traffic emissions from the key routes of the A259 and the B2123 along Rottingdean High Street. 

Most emissions are from diesel vehicles and often associated with waiting at, and pulling away from, the junction where the two main routes meet. 

Figure 13: AQMA 2 Rottingdean High Street 

AQMA 2 Rottingdean area NO2 improvement required 

Location 

2019 N02 Level 

Improvement between 2014 to 2019 

Reduction needed to meet UK legal requirement 

Reduction needed to meet local objective 

Rottingdean High Street East 

33µg/m3 

17% 

Already reached 

9% 

Rottingdean High Street West  

35µg/m3 

15% 

Already reached  

17% 

Rottingdean Marine Drive 

32µg/m3 

Monitoring started 2018 

Already reached 

6% 

Sustained improvement is still required in this area to achieve our local target. This AQMA declaration is scheduled for review from 2025.  

When compared to results from the monitor located on the seafront at Rottingdean, NO2 is twice as concentrated at the monitoring positions in the south of the High Street and next to Marine Drive. 

AQMA3 South West Portslade

Figure 14: AQMA 3 South West Portslade 

AQMA 3 South West Portslade area NO2 improvement required

Location 

2019 N02 Level 

Improvement between 2014 to 2019 

Reduction needed to meet UK legal requirement 

Reduction needed to meet local objective 

Trafalgar Road 

40 µg/m3 

11% 

10% 

25% 

Wellington Road 

39 µg/m3 

14% 

8% 

23% 

NO2 levels are close to exceeding UK standards on Trafalgar Road and Wellington Road, especially at the western end, near Church Road. Improvement is still required in this area to achieve the 30 µg/m3 local target. 

Pre pandemic source apportionment is as follows: 

Figure 15: Source Apportionment AQMA 3 South West Portslade Area 2019

Trafalgar Road

32% Minibuses and diesel cars

18% domestic and commercial

16% light goods vehicles and vans

16% heavy goods vehicles

10% buses and coaches

7% regional background

1% petrol cars and motorbikes

Wellington Road

36% Minibuses and diesel cars

27% domestic and commercial

13% heavy goods vehicles

10% buses and coaches

8% regional background

5% light goods vehicles and vans

1% petrol cars and motorbikes

AQMA 4 - Sackville Road/Old Shoreham Road junction

Figure 16: Sackville Road/ Old Shoreham Road junction 

AQMA4 Sackville Road/Old Shoreham Road junction NO2 improvement required 

Location 

2019 N02 Level 

Improvement between 2014 to 2019 

Reduction needed to meet UK legal requirement 

Reduction needed to meet local objective 

Sackville Road/ Old Shoreham Road 

35 µg/m3 

21% 

Already reached 

14% 

Monitoring in 2019 suggests compliance with air quality standards around this junction. That said, it will be important that new development buildings do not further encroach on the junction, making exhaust emissions more concentrated.  

Sustained improvement is still required in this area to achieve the 30 µg/m3   ambient NO2 local target. This will need to be further monitored as the AQMA is adjacent to construction and development sites.  

 AQMA 5 - South Street and Preston Road 

Figure 17: South Street and Preston Road 

AQMA 5 South Street and Preston Road area NO2 improvement required

Location 

2019 N02 Level 

Improvement between 2014 to 2019 

Reduction needed to meet UK legal requirement 

Reduction needed to meet local objective 

Preston Road (near Preston Drove) 

35µg/m3 

15% 

Already reached 

14% 

South Street (near The Drove) 

40µg/m3 

0% 

10% 

25% 

Monitoring since 2018 suggests air quality has improved substantially since the peak phases of construction for the Royal Sussex County Hospital expansion.   

Perceptions of Air Quality  

Alongside the monitoring and modelling shown above, we also need to consider the views of residents to demonstrate the support for further work in this area. 

The council takes part in the annual NHT survey which consists of a randomised sample of residents from across the city.   

In 2021, just 13% of respondents said they felt very well or fairly well informed about air quality alongside local roads while 70% feel not very well informed or not at all informed about this. Whilst some find the annual reports an invaluable reference, it suggests many people have not connected with the council’s reports on local air quality. 

As well as this, 34% of respondents felt very well or fairly well informed about the level of pollution caused by traffic in the local area, whilst 57% feel not very well informed or not at all informed about this. 

In terms of council priorities, 60% of respondents said it would be acceptable to improve the level of service by spending more on levels of traffic pollution, placing it amongst the top 5 priority areas for spending more. 

Satisfaction with both traffic pollution and traffic levels and congestion is poor and has decreased from 2020.  

NHT Results of Benchmark Indicators

Indicator 

Brighton & Hove City Council 2021 satisfaction score 

Brighton & Hove City Council 2020 Satisfaction score 

Year on Year Change 

Difference to NHT 2021 mean 

Authority Rank (out of 111) 

Traffic Levels and Congestion 

33% 

35% 

+2% 

-7% 

109 

Traffic Pollution 

36% 

34% 

+2% 

-10% 

106 

For the public consultation in autumn 2021 on the LCWIP and initial LTP5 direction of travel document, respondents were asked to state how concerned they were about various issues in the city. Highest levels of concern overall relate to climate change (76.7% of respondents were extremely or moderately concerned about this) following the climate assembly, air pollution (73.3% of respondents were extremely or moderately concerned about this) and traffic congestion (68.6% of respondents were extremely or moderately concerned about this).  

There were some variations in the level of concerns according to the type of journeys undertaken by respondents, including: 

  • respondents who travel longer distances are more concerned about traffic congestion than those travelling more locally  
  • air pollution, noise pollution, climate change and road safety are of least concern to those respondents using a car or van for all distance journeys
  • personal safety is of most concern to respondents who walk or cycle for all journeys lengths asked about (around local neighbourhood, into city centre, across the city and leaving the city)

Our priorities

The actions we want to take have been split into the following 5 priorities.

Priority 1: Increase Active Travel, Support Mode Shift and Reduce the need to travel 

Road transport accounts for over 30% of greenhouse emissions in Brighton & Hove and more than 80% of NO2 in the AQMAs. In order to reduce this, we need to encourage and facilitate active travel for short journeys (or as part of a longer journey) especially in the city centre, in combination with a reduced need to travel. Active travel reduces sedentary time, gives the human body a range of postures and exercises the heart and lungs. This helps raise individual and population level immunity and reduces the health risks associated with breathing in allergens and pollution. Active outdoor movement is an opportunity for everybody to breathe fresh air that helps improve sleep quality. 

An increase in active travel such as walking and cycling or a switch to more sustainable modes, for example, public transport, can support a reduction in transport emissions from private cars and vans. Reducing the need to travel can have similar effects, such as encouraging and enabling working from home or more locally-based shopping. Every individual vehicle trip that can be replaced by walking, cycling or public transport helps free up limited road space for trades and public transport including buses, taxis, internet deliveries, trades-people, carers, disabled drivers, and food distribution. 

In the UK, 58% of car journeys are under 5 miles and in urban areas, more than 40% of journeys are under two miles. In some instances, these journeys can be suited to cycling and walking. Some residents however, in particular some disabled people, may always need to use their cars for short journeys. 

Redesigning streets would allow us to give more space back to people through, for example, local community mini gardens or pocket parks, with trees or vegetation, or squares, to provide more space for relaxing, street markets or local events. 

Although not suitable for everyone, we have seen during the pandemic how it is possible to study or work from home and have good online access to health, financial, retail and other services. This can have a huge part to play in avoiding the need to travel, especially where we can reduce longer vehicle journeys.   

Since the last AQAP we have introduced the BTN Bikeshare scheme, which now has a fleet of over 600 bikes and members have cycled over 3 million miles. Smarter public transport ticketing has been introduced, with fare caps and contactless payments to make travelling by bus and train quicker, easier, and cheaper. 

Many of the actions we could take to reduce car use and encourage a shift to alternative and more sustainable forms of transport have been outlined in the emerging Local Transport Plan 5 (LTP5). Alongside the expansion and continuation of current projects, these will include options for introducing local and strategic mobility hubs, creating a liveable city centre and beginning more localised programmes of liveable neighbourhoods and school streets projects.

More detail on all of these potential options can be found on our Local Transport Plan web pages.  

Key actions: 

  • Deliver the priorities in the Local Cycling and Walking Infrastructure Plan (LCWIP) 
  • Develop Liveable Neighbourhood schemes 
  • Continue the rolling schedule of School Streets  
  • Expand the BTN Bikeshare scheme 
  • Promote and enable greater public transport use 

Find a full list of our measures in our Actions: Priority 1 section.

Priority 2: Encourage and support uptake of ultra-low and zero exhaust vehicles 

This priority focuses on encouraging and facilitating use of cleaner vehicles, for example:

  • motorcycles
  • cars
  • vans
  • minibuses
  • buses
  • lorries

The council will continue to support the switch to ultra-low, hybrid or zero exhaust vehicles by assisting and providing incentives for residents and businesses to switch to advanced euro-6 emission standard, electric, hydrogen or other clean energy. We will work with businesses, energy and transport companies and neighbouring authorities to provide the infrastructure required such as hydrogen refuelling stations. 

Options for an expanded ULEZ will be developed further, these include a physical extension to cover a larger area and different types of vehicles. An expanded ULEZ or a Zero Exhaust Zone could significantly cut transport emissions in busy central areas. One option is for an expanded ULEZ to include the built-up area south of the A27 trunk road, to include all vehicle types (motorcycles, cars, vans, lorries and buses) with exemptions in place for some vehicles for access. Any option will be subject to further consultation before any implementation. A UK ULEZ requires that petrol vehicles meet the euro-4 emission standard and diesel vehicles meet the euro-6 emissions standard.  

Access to ultra-low or zero exhaust vehicles needs to be improved, and increased charging points or further incentives should be put in place to help make the switch. 

Since the last AQAP, measures we have taken to encourage use of low or zero exhaust vehicles include the installation of more than 200 new lamp post column electric vehicle charging points, offering drivers of low emissions vehicles a 50% discount on parking permits and supporting the introduction of sustainably fuelled vehicles within the public transport network. The local taxi fleet has 13% of its vehicles fuelled by alternatives to diesel, with four licenced electric taxis, and slightly more than one fifth of the local bus fleet is diesel-electric hybrid including 54 double decker buses capable of operating on their battery through the ULEZ, through AQMAs and when pulling away from bus stops. 

As well as supporting the choices of individuals, the council supports local businesses and organisations to switch to low emission vehicles, such as electric cargo (e-Cargo) bikes for deliveries of goods and services. We also have a programme in place to switch our refuse collection and other large servicing vehicles from diesel to electric or other low-carbon fuels such as green hydrogen during the term of this AQAP. 

The uptake of zero exhaust vehicles in the city is increasing but is still very low. We recognize that for ultra-low and zero exhaust vehicles to be available to more people, manufacturing rates of new cars and vans would need to increase substantially, which is anticipated over time. Until then providing cleaner vehicle options on our public transport network and council fleets, and also supporting cleaner freight movement will help to bring down emissions and improve air quality for everyone.  

Key actions: 

  • Explore an expanded ULEZ for all vehicles in the city centre  
  • Ensure over 95% of the city's bus fleet meets Euro-VI standard in 2022, working towards 100% soon after 
  • Increase the availability of on and off-street electric vehicle charge points 
  • Increase uptake of electric taxis and provision of taxi-charging sites 

Find a full list of measures in our Actions: Priority 2 section.

Priority 3: Improve Monitoring and Public Awareness 

We will continue to monitor air quality at key sites across the city to assess our compliance with national legal requirements and our own local targets.  

An improvement in air quality monitoring is required across the city especially:  

  • in and around the Air Quality Management Areas  
  • development Areas  
  • long term construction sites  
  • in the vicinity of port activities  
  • areas where residents are concerned about domestic burning causing smoke 

As well as supporting the individual choices and responsibilities of our residents and visitors, we can communicate our own data more effectively and more transparently to them.

Increasing the public’s understanding of the sources and effects of air pollution can also influence changes in behaviour which can help improve air quality. This is especially important given over 70% of residents feel uninformed about local air quality. Plans are in place, and contributory funding has been secured, to upgrade the Greater Brighton air quality monitoring network to provide verified results to the public.

Brighton & Hove and Sussex will integrate its Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) and Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10) monitoring capability into one verified network for Sussex.    

Alongside a continuation of our existing behaviour change campaigns and events, including Car Free Day and Clean Air Day, we will produce promotional campaigns about specific causes of air pollution. 

Key actions: 

  • Improve monitoring quality including real time information 
  • Deliver behaviour change campaigns, such as travel to school, seasonal awareness of woodburning stove use   
  • Share information with Director of Public Health, GPs and NHS 
  • Promote AirAlert System 

Find a full list of measures in our Actions: Priority 3 section.

Priority 4: Reduce emissions from buildings and new development 

The council will continue to mitigate and minimise emissions from both existing buildings and from new developments, through a combination of conditions within our planning process and work towards improving heat retention and providing information on smoke control. New developments will start to be fully electric without gas combustion which is the city’s second source of oxides of nitrogen after road traffic. 

This helps to reduce medium term reliance on fossil fuel natural gas which is likely to have supply challenges. 

This AQAP recommends that where practicable, developments improve existing buildings and structures, or consider options for change of use, instead of opting for new builds. This stops, or defers, demolition and rebuilding which leads to new materials being manufactured and shipped each time land is redeveloped.  

Local, regional and national policies and guidance require air quality to be a material consideration in the planning process. Our existing planning policies will continue to promote low emissions from new developments. Key planning policies already state that mitigation is required for all developments that have potential to cause pollution. New developments will need to facilitate and promote active, sustainable travel and avoid emissions from travel, for example, by installing secure cycle storage or being car free. 

On the occasions where demolition is the preferred option, the opportunity should be taken to widen pavements, create shared amenities and provide space for ventilation and cleaner air. New builds need to be sufficiently durable and sustainable to last several generations and should be designed for adaptations, extensions, or future changes of use. 

The planning process is a mechanism to assess what will change compared to the existing planning permissions, for example changes to traffic, gas combustion or confined spaces, and these changes are considered in accordance with national guidance. 

In Brighton & Hove, domestic burning tends to supplement central heating and be intermittent according to stay at home choice, the season and temperature. Further work is required to determine the contribution domestic burning has on local air quality, however open fireplaces and stoves (coal and wood for heating) tend not to be sufficiently hot to emit NO2., but at times, such as midwinter or evenings, are the main source of neighbourhood smoke, particularly in residential areas. 

The council will consider a citywide smoke control area with the aim of reducing smoke from chimneys. Where a smoke control area is designated it is against the law to emit persistent visible smoke from a building chimney. 

It is the homeowner or tenant/occupier responsibility to comply with the law on smoke control. This includes avoiding persistent visible smoke from a chimney. Certain fuels and stoves are classed as smokeless, however solid fuel burning is likely to produce smoke with intermittent use. Burning coal, wood and waste is not the best option amongst populated neighbourhoods. Where wood burners and flues are installed, they need to comply with building regulations. Room ventilation, chimney sweeping, smoke alarms and carbon monoxide monitors are recommended.  

Smoke from bonfires is dealt with by regulatory services under nuisance legislation. 

Key actions: 

  • Explore options to discourage smoky domestic burning activities 
  • Explore introduction of a citywide Smoke Control Area  
  • Enable more car free/low car developments 
  • Continue seasonal promotion about the risks of smoke on health 
  • Electric developments supplied by a clean grid, in order to reduce emissions of oxides of nitrogen from heat and power and ongoing reliance on fossil fuel 

Find a full list of measures in our Actions: Priority 4 section.

Priority 5 Partnership working 

Brighton & Hove cannot tackle air quality alone, and pollution experienced is often created outside of the city. Working with our neighbouring authorities is key to improving air quality across the whole region. 

Brighton & Hove is already involved in several working partnerships as follows: 

The Sussex Air Quality Partnership (SAQP), formed in 1999, includes all local authorities across Sussex with strong links to universities such as Imperial College London, University of Sussex, and University of Brighton. The group meets quarterly to share knowledge and best practice on air quality and collaboratively develop and deliver projects to improve air quality and reduce people’s exposure to pollution. A small team drawn from across the county have worked together to submit bids to DEFRA’s air quality grant, often led by the city council. The group works collectively to tender contacts and achieve good value for money, for example we aim to improve integration of the air monitoring network across the county. 

East Sussex County Council and Brighton & Hove City Council have worked together to submit preliminary bids and an expression of interest to government’s Department for Transport’s (DfT’s) Zero Emission Bus Regional Area (ZEBRA) grant. Brighton & Hove Buses’ preference is a hydrogen-fuelled bus fleet within a few years and the DfT funding could help pay for infrastructure, new vehicles or the retrofit of the existing fleet to zero tailpipe. 

As well as working in partnership with neighbouring authorities, we need to work closely with transport providers, businesses and local stakeholders to maximise the impact our actions can have. 

There is a need for shared information on clean air and pollution, for example with the Director of Public Health, clinical professionals, GPs and the NHS. 

In June 2021, councillors agreed that the council should start the process of forming an Enhanced Partnership in response to the National Bus Strategy. This will replace our existing, informal but highly successful Quality Bus Partnership which has been in place since 1997. Together with local bus companies, our latest Bus Service Improvement Plan (BSIP) was produced in late 2021 and submitted to government to help secure additional funding. 

Other crucial actions are to continue close working with schools and workplaces to encourage and facilitate active travel and support them to implement their own travel plans. This will take place alongside working with local community groups to develop schemes which will most benefit them. 

Key actions: 

  • Work closely with public transport operators, businesses and business groups to tackle emissions from deliveries and vehicle fleets  
  • Work with DEFRA on air quality policy 
  • Lead neighbouring authorities for future funding bids and improved awareness 
  • Work with Director of Public Health to share information with GPs and NHS 
  • Work with BHCC planning to deliver cleaner developments 
  • Engage with community groups to help support the development and introduction of liveable neighbourhoods including those next to main roads 

Find a full list of measures in our Actions: Priority 5 section.

Actions: Priority 1

Priority 1: Increase Active Travel, Support Mode Shift and Reduce the need for some journeys 

Develop Interchange Strategy 

Timescales: During this AQAP.

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport.

Evidencing: Interchange Strategy adopted 

Additional details or progress: Part of LTP5 

Develop and implement Local Cycling and Walking and Infrastructure Plan (LCWIP) 

Timescales: from March 2022.

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport.

Evidencing: LCWIP adopted 

Additional details or progress: Adopted March 2022 

Develop Assessment Framework for Low Traffic Neighbourhoods (LTN) 

Timescales: 2022.

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport.

Evidencing: LTN Assessment Framework adopted 

Additional details or progress: Reduce road traffic emissions in LTNs, their boundary roads. and AQMAs 

Carbon Reduction Strategy 

Timescales: By 2030 

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Sustainability.

Evidencing: Carbon Reduction Strategy adopted 

Additional details or progress: Reduced combustion of fossil fuel can help local air quality 

Encourage / Facilitate home-working remote access to health, services, education  

Timescales: During this AQAP (2022 to 2027) 

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council, Employers, Health authorities, Universities.

Evidencing: Reduced traffic levels 

Additional details or progress: Reduction has been seen during the pandemic but may rise a year or two after restrictions end. Type of vehicles also significant for carbon and local air quality. 

School Travel Plans 

Timescales: Ongoing

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport.

Evidencing: Annual school travel survey results  

Additional details or progress: Joined with Defra funded projects 

Workplace Travel Planning

Timescales: Ongoing

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport.

Evidencing:

  • Annual Workplace travel survey results 
  • Increase number of businesses with active travel plans 

Additional details or progress: Helped by reduced levels of commuting since 2018/2019 

School Streets 

Timescales: Rolling programme of 6 schemes per financial year 

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport.

Evidencing: Annual school travel survey results to look at travel modes 

Additional details or progress: First permanent schemes due to be operational during 2021/2022 academic year 

Public transport improvements interchanges stations and services 

Timescales: Ongoing

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport, Network Rail, Bus Companies 

Evidencing: Easier to transfer between transport modes 

Additional details or progress: Progress has been made to make public transport interchanges accessible 

Expanded BTN Bikeshare scheme and inclusion of e-bikes 

Timescales: 2022 to 2023 

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport,

Evidencing: Uptake in BTN Bikeshare usage and new members 

Additional details or progress:

  • Planned expansion to suburbs and to neighbouring local authorities 
  • Planned fleet upgrade to include e-bikes 

Continue to promote e-cargo bikes 

Timescales: Ongoing

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport 

Evidencing: Reduction in freight emissions  

Additional details or progress: Several local businesses have already switched to e-cargo bikes 

Introduce more/ extend existing bus priority lanes 

Timescales: Ongoing

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport, Bus Partnership

Evidencing: 

  • Increases in bus patronage 
  • Buses running to timetable 

Additional details or progress: Preferences and priorities set out from bus operators to improve punctuality 

Continue with higher cost for resident parking permits for additional vehicles   

Timescales: Ongoing

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport, Parking 

Evidencing: Reduction in the number of households applying for more than one permit    

Additional details or progress: Rolling programme 

Cycle Hangar installation in residential areas 

Timescales: 2022

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council 

Evidencing: Cycle Hangar procurement, installation and places filled 

Additional details or progress: Rolling programme 

Explore Park & Ride 

Timescales: 2022

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council, Bus companies

Evidencing: Feasibility study completed 

Additional details or progress:

  • Prioritised by the Climate Assembly.
  • Trial at Mill Road planned for summer 2022  

Introduce Local and Strategic Mobility hubs  

Timescales: Ongoing

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport

Evidencing: Sites developed and operational  

Additional details or progress: Prioritised by the Climate Assembly and proposed alongside other measures for consideration in upcoming LTP5 

Explore a Workplace Parking Levy 

Timescales: Ongoing

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport

Evidencing: Feasibility completed 

Additional details or progress: Proposed for consideration in LTP5, example in Nottingham 

Develop high quality public realm projects to improve air quality 

Timescales: Ongoing

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport

Evidencing: Air Quality improvements  

Additional details or progress: Valley Gardens Phase 3 will be next scheme 

Develop re-wilding and tree planting areas and parklets 

Timescales: Ongoing

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Parks

Evidencing: Improved urban realm and a safer more attractive environment for walking and cycling   

Additional details or progress: 

  • Progress: 
    • Valley Gardens
    • Waterhall rewilding
    • Carden Hill tree planting
    • LTNs 

Develop Low Traffic/Liveable Neighbourhoods  

Timescales: 2022 to 2024

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport

Evidencing: 

  • Reductions in traffic 
  • Improved air quality 

Additional details or progress: Pilot scheme for Hanover and Tarner area in development 

Liveable City Centre 

Timescales: 2023

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport

Evidencing: Reductions in traffic and emissions  

Additional details or progress: Prioritised by Climate Assembly and proposed alongside other measures for consideration in upcoming LTP5  

20-minute neighbourhoods 

Timescales: During this AQAP 

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Planning

Evidencing: Reductions in traffic and emissions  

Additional details or progress: Proposed in LTP5 

Actions: Priority 2

Priority 2: Encourage and support uptake of ultra-low and zero exhaust vehicles

Explore an expanded Ultra-Low Emission Zone to include private vehicles and/or to cover a larger area 

Timescales: 2022 to 2024.

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport and Air Quality.

Evidencing: 

  • Increase in % buses that are at least Euro-VI standard 
  • 83% lower emissions within the AQMAs and across the city 

Additional details or progress: Being proposed alongside other measures for consideration in upcoming LTP5.

Bus retrofitting 

Timescales: 2022.

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport, Bus companies

Evidencing:

  • Increase in % of Euro-VI standard bus fleet
  • Increase % without exhausts

Additional details or progress: 70% of frequent buses are Euro-VI standard. DEFRA grant can help achieve close to 95% during 2022. 

Installation of Fast and Rapid Electric Vehicle charging points 

Timescales: Ongoing

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport

Evidencing:

  • Increase in number of e-vehicle fast and rapid charging points 
  • Increased uptake of Electric Vehicles 

Additional details or progress: Over 200 on street charging points already installed in lamp post columns for taxi trade and private vehicles 

Installation of Fast and Rapid Electric Vehicle charging points for taxis 

Timescales: Ongoing

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport

Evidencing:

  • Increase in number of e-taxi fast and rapid charging points 
  • Increased uptake of electric taxis 

Additional details or progress: Increase in facilities available to taxi trade 

Working towards a zero-exhaust council fleet 

Timescales: 2020 to 2024

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Fleet

Evidencing: Increase in % fleet that is zero exhaust 

Additional details or progress: First electric cars, vans and lorries already in service 

Continue to offer reduced resident parking permits costs for ultra-low and zero exhaust vehicles 

Timescales: Ongoing

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport

Evidencing: 

  • Increase in % parking permits that are for zero, or low, emission vehicles 
  • Fewer higher polluting vehicles 

Additional details or progress: Committee report later in 2022 

Explore ultra-low emission vehicles for Home to School Services 

Timescales: From 2022

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Home to School Transport

Evidencing: Higher proportion of ultra-low emission vehicles  

Additional details or progress: Part of the procurement contract 

Communications to avoid engine idling  

Timescales: Ongoing

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Air Quality and Communications

Evidencing: Public awareness of the offence caused 

Additional details or progress: Increased uptake of auto engine shut off and vehicles without exhausts 

Zero exhaust for last mile deliveries 

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport

Evidencing: Reduce emissions for freight into AQMAs and Liveable City Centre 

Additional details or progress: Increase in delivery share from e-bikes or small vans without exhausts 

Actions: Priority 3

Priority 3: Improve Monitoring and Public Awareness 

Ongoing publication of Air Quality Annual Status Reports 

Timescales: Annually

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Air Quality

Evidencing: Publication of report  

Additional details or progress: Scheduled each July, to be appraised by DEFRA 

Continue Air Quality monitoring, adding new automatic stations  

Timescales: Ongoing

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Air Quality

Evidencing: Meets statutory obligations    

Additional details or progress: Integrate new stations with the Sussex regional network 

Real time Air Quality monitoring data available publicly 

Timescales: 2022 to 2023

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport and Air Quality, Greater brighton

Evidencing: System procured, installed and operational   

Additional details or progress: Real-time monitoring online for Liveable City Centre, AQMAs, port-side, long term construction sites and some schools 

Create interactive online air quality map of our local monitoring sites 

Timescales: 2023

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport and Air Quality

Evidencing: Part of Sussex Air web    

Additional details or progress: Improvements to be delivered within a year of the AQAP approval 

Public information campaigns about options for cleaner home heating 

Timescales: During AQAP period 

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport and Communications

Evidencing: % residents informed about local air quality (NHT survey data) 

Additional details or progress: Information about grants for cleaner home heating to help reduce gas emissions, smoke and carbon 

Continue with seasonal awareness campaign about wood burners 

Timescales: Each year in the Autumn    

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport and Communications

Evidencing: More residents informed about local air quality (NHT survey data) 

Additional details or progress: Seasonal press releases updated each year  

Public information campaigns about air quality and health 

Timescales: Targets events  

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport, Public Health and Communications

Evidencing: % residents informed about local air quality (NHT survey data) 

Additional details or progress: Tied in with clinical health, GPs, NHS and Director of Public Health  

Promote the Air Alert System 

Timescales: Ongoing   

Lead by: Sussex Air 

Evidencing: Increased usage of the system  

Additional details or progress: Sussex Air to reports 

Continue to promote and hold events such as Car Free Day and Clean Air Week 

Timescales: Annually  

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport

Evidencing: Delivery of promotional activities. Important to reduce emissions in the winter  

Additional details or progress: Integrated with the AQAP 

Continue with Move for Change campaign  

Timescales: Ongoing

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport

Evidencing: Increase in sign-ups for Better Points app  

Additional details or progress: Information online 

Actions: Priority 4

Priority 4: Reduce emissions from buildings and new development  

Ensure new development has a positive influence on Air Quality 

Timescales: Throughout the AQAP period 

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport and Planning

Evidencing: Develop designs to improve air quality     

Additional details or progress: Build back better aims to improve the environment compared to historical planning permissions 

Improve urban street ventilation by avoiding enclosure 

Timescales: Throughout the AQAP period 

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Air Quality and Planning

Evidencing: Avoid creating or reinstating street canyons by designing  gaps and setbacks  

Additional details or progress:

  • Buildings set back from roads and gaps between structures
  • Public amenity space including room for pedestrians, cyclists and open space, for example, parklets 

Cleaner home heating 

Timescales: Throughout the AQAP period 

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Planning

Evidencing: 

  • Reductions in particulate emissions from domestic heating
  • Reduction in oxides of nitrogen from gas boilers
  • Electric developments.   

Additional details or progress:

  • Illegal to sell bagged traditional house coal or wet wood from 2022
  • 2025 Future Homes Standard  
  • Incentives for heat pumps electric heat and insulation 

Trained officers to enforce domestic smoke offences   

Timescales: Ongoing

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Environmental Health

Evidencing: 

  • Illegal fuels stopped at the point of sale
  • Response to complaints of visible smoke

Additional details or progress: New DEFRA guidance 2022 

Developments will need to facilitate and promote active, sustainable, and zero exhaust travel

Timescales: Ongoing

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport

Evidencing: Planning permissions granted 

Additional details or progress: Part of planning applications 

Ensure new commercial developments produce a workplace travel plan 

Timescales: Ongoing

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport

Evidencing: Travel Plans secured 

Additional details or progress: Also applies to mixed-use developments 

Where residential and other parking is included, appropriate mitigation measures such as 100% electric vehicle charging points will be required

Timescales: Throughout the AQAP period 

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport, Air Quality and Planning

Evidencing: Planning permission granted 

Additional details or progress: Higher percentages of electric vehicle charging facilities in developments that have parking from 2022 onwards 

Ensure that major developments avoid emissions in accordance with energy hierarchy for net carbon and avoid oxides of nitrogen emissions in and around AQMAs

Timescales: Throughout the AQAP period 

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport, Air Quality and Planning

Evidencing: Aim for development that is air quality positive  

Additional details or progress: Seek innovative solutions to avoid chimney, flue gas and vehicle emissions from new developments and avoid structures that enclose streets or create confined spaces where pollutants might become concentrated 

Continue to have Construction Environment Management Plans (CEMPs) in place

Timescales: Ongoing 

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport and Planning

Evidencing: CEMP in place   

Additional details or progress: HGVs accessing construction sites avoid AQMAs and meet the euro-VI emission standard 

Explore the options for a citywide smoke control area 

Timescales: 2022

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Air Quality and Legal

Evidencing: Feasibility Study    

Additional details or progress: Public opinion to be sought through AQAP consultation 

Improved Emission Standards for Non-Road Mobile Machinery 

Timescales: Constant

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport and Planning

Evidencing: CEMP     

Additional details or progress: Applies to bulldozers and cranes and other machinery working on construction sites  

Actions: Priority 5

Priority 5: Partnership working 

Participate in DEFRA’s local authority air quality advisory group 

Timescales: Throughout the AQAP period 

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Air Quality

Evidencing: Help steer national priorities for improving air quality 

Additional details or progress: Regular meetings 

Lead projects with the Sussex Air Quality Partnership 

Timescales: Throughout the AQAP period 

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Air Quality

Evidencing: Deliver funds and projects to improve air quality 

Additional details or progress: Ongoing work for 2022 to 2023 on cleaner buses and air monitoring 

Project with Brighton & Hove buses, Ricardo and local taxis to geo-reference hybrid vehicles 

Timescales: 2021 to 2022

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Air Quality and Transport

Evidencing: Reduce emissions in city centre and AQMAs  

Additional details or progress: Project nearly completed can save fuel, carbon and beneficial for toxic emissions 

Work with Director of Public Health 

Timescales: Throughout the AQAP period 

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Air Quality

Evidencing: Align air quality improvement with the work of clinical professionals and the NHS agenda 

Additional details or progress: Continued presentations on air quality to the Health and Wellbeing Board and elected members 

Research carried out to investigate the effects of better aligned wheel tracking on air quality 

Timescales: 2021 to 2023 

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Air Quality, Imperial College London

Evidencing: Reducing particles from tyre wear and better MPG 

Additional details or progress: Research project with potential benefit for particles. Discussion with Imperial College, University of London 

Continue to lobby for government to bring forward WHO guidelines for PM2.5 

Timescales: Ongoing

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council

Evidencing: UK health-based air quality standards made more stringent or devolved to local administrations  

Additional details or progress: Consultation on government guidance during 2022 

Work with local stakeholders on pilot projects in specific areas  

Timescales: Ongoing

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council

Evidencing: Projects designed in collaboration with local communities  

Additional details or progress: Liveable Neighbourhoods  

Continue close working with schools to implement travel plans, encourage walking and cycling and raise awareness of air quality  

Timescales: Ongoing

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport

Evidencing: Annual school travel surveys 

Additional details or progress: DEFRA air quality grant helps progress this 

Continue close working with workplaces to implement travel plans 

Timescales: Ongoing

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport

Evidencing: Annual workplace travel surveys 

Additional details or progress: Progress with working from home and reduced work-related commuting peaks in traffic. Better vehicle flow throughout the day 

Establish an Enhanced Partnership to replace the existing Quality Bus Partnership  

Timescales: 2022

Lead by: Brighton & Hove City Council Transport/ Bus companies

Evidencing: Enhanced partnership set up  

Additional details or progress: Better Bus Service Improvement Plan (BSIP) helps takes this forward