Information and Brighton & Hove City Council details

Local Authority Officer

Samuel Rouse

Department

Transport

Address

Hove Town Hall

Email

samuel.rouse@brighton-hove.gov.uk

Report Reference Number

BHCC AQAP

Date

June 2023

Summary: Air quality in our area

Nitrogen dioxide levels have improved since the pre-pandemic situation. That said monitoring suggests an increase in regional pollution levels since 2020 or 2021. The two previous calendar yeas were influenced by changes in travel behaviours. During 2022 services have rebounded with an increase in some vehicle types in and around travel corridors running through our six Air Quality Management Areas (AQMAs).

This year Bureau Veritas have produced a complementary report that present results from the Sussex monitoring network for Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5 and PM10), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) and Ozone (O3).

The city council continues with its automatic analyser located next to the bus ultra-low emissions zone set back from North Street. DEFRA automatic analysers for oxides of nitrogen, particles, and ozone are in Preston Park. The University of Brighton continues to monitor pollutants at Falmer. 

For 2022 calendar year the city council has submitted to DEFRA verified results for eighty-two Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) diffusion tubes.  Additions include pre-scheme (baseline); road and kerbside monitoring prior to possible cycle lanes and pilot liveable Neighbourhood area in Hanover and Tarner.

Subject to the required procurement approvals funded is allocated to install additional automatic monitoring stations for daily and hourly pollutant monitoring. This will also help enable the verification of real-time sensors across the city. 

Since the last annual report, the city council has undergone a detailed consultation on its Air Quality Action Plan (AQAP). Members at committee approved the plan for the period 2022 to 2027, with more stringent air quality targets. Options remain to review or amend the city’s smoke control areas. Most recently members have decided to enforce vehicle anti-idling a measure aimed at reducing emissions and fumes.

Between December 2022 and May 2023 Brighton & Hove buses have completed another round (52) bus exhaust upgrades for cleaner buses. The benefits of these additional buses achieving ultra-low emission standards is set to be recorded by our local monitors from 2023 onwards. This report present monitoring prior to this most recent intervention.

Below is a commentary on each Air Quality Management section with a consideration of vehicle count changes in recent years up to the end of 2022. More detailed charts on long term changes to pollution are presented in the main body of the report.

Citywide and background air quality

Particulate levels across the city are close to achieving 2040 national targets proposed at 10 µg/m3 as an annual average for PM2.5 (airborne particles less than 2.5 microns).  A reduction in concentrations will have benefits for health at a individual and population level. Monitoring suggests particulate levels are higher in built-up areas compared to the South Downs National Park.  Based on the monitoring to date particulate levels are not higher next to local roads which suggests a variety of near and far emission sources contribute to local air quality. Road traffic including motorways contribute to secondary atmospheric pollution including particulates composed of nitrates. Sulphurous fuels and emissions have diminished substantially compared to historical levels. The monitoring we have so far indicates that particulate concentrations have not improved in recent years. Caution is required when comparing different particulate monitoring methods. A funded project is working to upgrade the particulate monitoring network across Sussex. The purpose of improved monitoring is raised awareness and community engagement.

Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) concentrations at background sites such as across suburbs have gradually improved since 2010 and 2017, that said there is a slight regional increase in outdoor NO2 since 2020_2021. In Brighton & Hove this has been monitored in Portslade (Vale Park), Preston Park (North Brighton), Pavilion Gardens (City Centre) and most recently on Rottingdean Sea Front.  All background monitors are remote from roads, outside of the designated AQMAs and represent the regional air quality situation.

A270 Old Shoreham Road (OSR Outside of AQMA)

Since 2021 a diffusion tubes survey has monitored kerbside and roadside NO2 next to the Old Shoreham Road (A270) in Portslade (western part of the local authority). Its purpose was to provide an effective baseline ahead of a potential cycle lane that aims to promote sustainable travel and reduce carbon. Where vehicle accelerate eastbound from the Lock Hill junction diffusion tubes at the kerbside railings record high levels of NO2. The concentrations dissipate within one to eight metres. It is recommended that monitoring continues near to the boundary of Brackenbury primary school. Outside the AQMA at relevant receptors NO2 is compliant with air quality standards.

A259 Kingsway (Outside of AQMA)

Since 2021 a diffusion tubes survey has monitored kerbside and roadside NO2 next to Kingsway (A259). It provides monitoring ahead of a possible extended cycle lane that aims to promote sustainable travel, reduce fuel consumption and carbon. Annualised levels of NO2 monitored 2021 and the full calendar year 2022 indicate that NO2 is close to half the national air quality standards and easily meets the more ambitious AQAP target of 30 µg/m3. Further intervention and improvement would help work towards World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines for air quality.

Hanover and Tarner Pilot Liveable Neighbourhood LN (majority outside the AQMA)

To determine a pre-scheme, baseline for outdoor air quality a diffusion tube monitoring survey has been carried out for potential Hanover and Tarner LN area and its boundary roads.

2022 (annualised) results indicate outdoor Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) in this area is most concentrated at the base of the slope, at the frontages of properties adjacent to the A23 (Grand Parade 41 and 38 µg/m3) and A270 (Lewes Road 46 and 42 µg/m3) that is part of AQMA1. At the rear of roadside buildings, recorded NO2 concentrations drop-off substantially by half.  For this reason, new ground floor flats at roadside (since 2007) are designed to have their ventilation air intakes at the back.  

Between 2001 and 2008 diffusion tubes monitored NO2 outside Elm Grove Primary School. Over this eight-year period the average was 33 µg/m3 NO2 (maximum 38 µg/m3 in 2004 minimum 30 µg/m3 in 2008).  At the same location in 2022, resumption of NO2 monitoring outside the school indicated close to 26 µg/m3. This outdoor concentration complies with the ambitious target of 30 µg/m3 set out in the City Council’s 2022 AQAP.

NO2 at upslope and mid-slope locations in Hanover set back from main roads indicate levels are 18 to 20 µg/m3, the same as Pavilion Gardens (urban background). This level of NO2 in outdoor air is less than half (46%) of national air quality standards.

AQMAs

The following sections refer to vehicular traffic trends and NO2 monitors along travel corridors in the Air Quality Management Areas last amended and designated in 2020. Trend graph for NO2 pollution concentrations in around the AQMAS are given in the main body of the report.

AQMA1 A2010 Around Brighton Railway Station

The main railway station is an important transport interchange.  Automatic traffic counters on Queens Road (south of Brighton train station) record a reduction in car and van counts since 2018/19. Bus counts have been relatively constant. As train activity increases service vehicles flows around the station have recovered compared with 2020, but not to pre-pandemic levels. This observation suggests behavioural change (since Q1 of 2020) with less commuting compared to the years prior to the pandemic. Taxi pick-up has moved to the east side of the train station which would partly explain the reduction in car trips on Queens Road. Vehicular numbers in combination with the proportion of ultra-low and zero vehicles influences road traffic emissions and roadside air quality. 

AQMA1 North Laine through traffic

Frederick Street-Gloucester Road east of Brighton railway station is an important access route that services residences and the pedestrianised Brighton Laines. Interestingly traffic counters since 2018 record a significant decrease in the number of cars using the link.  There has been an increase in goods vehicles both vans and lorries suggesting a switch to deliveries. In this case source apportionment changes as the local air quality stays the same since 2020.

AQMA1B2066 Bus Ultra-low Emission zone

Weekday bus counts on North Street are ordinarily constant. A reduction has been recorded from nearly 2800 a day in 2019, 2367 for 2020, back up to almost 2500 a day in 2022. With the introduction of zero capable hybrid buses (2018 and 2019) and a higher proportion of ultra-low vehicles the bus fleet is becoming cleaner. Further improvements such as exhaust upgrades have been delivered during 2023. Lorry counts on North Street have declined. Car counts on North Street had a daily average in 2019 of almost 3100, 2300 in 2020 recovered to 2900 in 2022. NO2 along the ULEZ travel corridor has improved substantially over the past five and ten years.  The smaller increase in NO2 monitored in 2022 (compared to previous years) is also recorded regionally.

AQMA1 A23 Valley Gardens

From September 2019 the western side of Valley Gardens has been allocated to buses and taxis and the eastern side to general traffic two-ways; northbound and southbound. This helped to accelerate the rate of improvement in NO2 on the east side and the amount if traffic using the A23 into Brighton. Around Valley Gardens, NO2 reduced substantially between 2010 and 2020, the smaller increase since 2020 is also recorded in other areas. Further improvements are required to easily comply with national air quality standards and push towards WHO guidelines.  40 µg/m3 NO2 (UK standard exceedance) is recorded on one of three Grand Parade façade diffusion tubes in 2022. 

AQMA1 A23 / A270 Preston Circus

Monitoring of vehicles along Beaconsfield Road (A23) shows a long-term decline in the count of cars from 14,000 per day in 2013 to 11,000 in 2022.  There is a gradual reduction in the number of daily lorries using this section of the A23 from 620 in 2014 to 438 in 2022. Conversely the number of average daily buses has increased from 138 in 2011 to 243 in 2019, since falling back to 183 in 2022.  Noticeably the number of vans (light goods) has increased as follows: 

Weekday average van (Light Goods) counts in the AQMA near Preston Circus

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Most vans will be older diesels that contribute to oxide of nitrogen emissions. That said light goods vehicle deliveries can save car and lorry trips. Following a dip during the pandemic car counts on New England Road were higher in 2022 compared with 2018, NO2 has reduced considerably since 2010 with a smaller uptick since 2021. 

AQMA1 A270 Lewes Road

This is the link between the City Centre the University of Brighton and the University of Sussex.  Buses constantly shuttle both ways day and night. Late 2022 the fifteen-year-old bendy buses were taken out of service and replaced with ultra-low vehicles. This reduction in emissions will influence roadside pollution and the benefits of this change will be monitored 2023.

In terms of planning the Lewes Road travel corridor is typically maisonettes, with retail ground floor and roadside residential use from ground floor upwards. There are many take-away food outlets. Vehicle counters record an increase in motorbikes and vans most likely involved in servicing and deliveries. Recent monitoring indicates exceedance of national NO2 standards within 125 meters of Elm Grove and Vogue Gyratory junctions. NO2 levels have gradually improved long term and further improvement is required. On Hollingdean Road demolition of roadside terraces and replacement with new developments will change how air circulates in the street and further pollution monitoring is scheduled since NO2 exceedance was monitored 2002 to 2019.   

There is long term decrease in cars using the A270 with a smaller increase since 2020. Explanations of charts and graphs are provided in alt text.

Long term weekday annual average car counts in the AQMA along the A270

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AQMA2 B2123 / A259 Rottingdean

Counters in Rottingdean High Street since 2020 show car and van counts have declined. At the same time the weekday count of lorries (heavy goods) has increased.

Long term counts of cars on the A259 show a gradual decrease as follows:

Long term weekday annual average car counts in the AQMAs along the A259

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Roadside NO2 levels in Rottingdean (chart in the main report) have decreased substantially since 2010, 2017 and 2018. An increase in NO2 is monitored for 2022 compared to 2020 and 2021.  Further improvement is required to close the difference between roadside and background levels and achieve better than the 30 µg/m3 target set out in the City Council’s 2022 Air Quality Action Plan (AQAP).

AQMA3 A259 / A293 South Portslade

The above graph is also relevant to AQMA3 in the west of the local authority area. Lorries (heavy goods haulage from the Shoreham port inland) along the A259 in Portslade have declined from 934 weekday average in 2019 to 800 for average weekdays in 2022. Vans (light goods) have also decreased in this area suggesting reduced activity for industries in the port area. It appears to be the opposite trend to vans and motorbikes associated with take-aways and home deliveries. Along Wellington Road buses have increased from 337 average weekday in 2018 to 463 in 2021 and 416 in 2022. After long term improvement there is an increase in monitored NO2 in 2022 compared to 2021 (a trend graph is included in the body of the report).

AQMA4 Sackville Road

The development site adjacent to Sackville Road was not fully used prior to major construction. A traffic survey is required to determine long term trends in the various vehicle types.  NO2 has improved since 2010, 2013 and 2016. The NO2 annual mean for 2022 indicates an increase compared with 2020 and 2021. Monitoring indicates pollution is lower than the pre-pandemic situation.

AQMA5 A23 Preston Road South Road and the Drove

A traffic survey is required to determine long term trends in various vehicle types using The Drove west of the railway in AQMA5.  NO2 has been slow to improve near the hairpin hill climb linking with Millers Road a trend chart is included in this report.   

AQMA6 Eastern Road, Royal Sussex County Hospital

The hospital includes trauma, cancer care and neo-natal units. Improvement in air quality in the area will benefit health at a population level including people spending time in the infirmary. Monitoring suggests heavy construction traffic required for the hospital re-build contributed to higher roadside NO2 2016 to 2018.  Long-term improvement has been monitored in NO2 at the façade adjacent to Eastern Road, near the main hospital buildings. The national standard and AQAP target are met. Further improvement is required for this AQMA and surroundings to work towards WHO health guidelines. Hybrid buses operate in zero emission mode outside the hospital.

Officers have recommended that Combined Heat and Power gas combustion with emission at height at the hospital is refused by planning and gas combustion is phased out.

Air Quality in Brighton & Hove City Council

Air pollution is associated with a number of adverse health impacts. It is recognised as a contributing factor in the onset of heart disease and cancer. Additionally, air pollution particularly affects the most vulnerable in society: children, the elderly, and those with existing heart and lung conditions. There is also often a strong correlation with equalities issues because areas with poor air quality are also often less affluent areas

  • Public Health England. Air Quality: A Briefing for Directors of Public Health, 2017
  • Defra. Air quality and social deprivation in the UK: an environmental inequalities analysis, 2006) 

That said, Brighton has a cosmopolitan centre with relatively high pollution levels, compared with less affluent outer areas (such as Whitehawk) with well-ventilated cleaner air. During the life course, to varying degrees inhalation of smoke and gases can affect everyone’s health.

The mortality burden of air pollution within the UK is equivalent to 29,000 to 43,000 deaths at typical ages (Defra. Air quality appraisal: damage cost guidance, January 2023), with a total estimated healthcare cost to the NHS and social care of £157 million in 2017 (Public Health England. Estimation of costs to the NHS and social care due to the health impacts of air pollution: summary report, May 2018).

Where pollutant levels are at risk of exceeding established standards (1995 objective that became legal standards in 2010) the City Council has declared six AQMAs. Use the AQMAs interactive map and select NO2, then zoom into the local detail. 

Whilst Brighton & Hove AQMAs are small compared to London and Birmingham, population density and visitor numbers are very high, so thousands of people are affected, by air quality in these areas. The last declaration can be found at: Brighton & Hove AQMA Orders 2020. 

How Brighton & Hove manages air quality is complimented with joint working with Sussex-Air Promoting better Air Quality in Sussex.

In particular we welcome ties with:

The Air Quality Action Plan has been approved by committee and sent to DEFRA for appraisal.

Actions to improve air quality

Whilst air quality has improved significantly in recent decades, there are some areas where local action is needed to protect people and the environment from the effects of air pollution.

The Environmental Improvement Plan (Defra. Environmental Improvement Plan 2023, January 2023) sets out actions that will drive continued improvements to air quality and to meet the new national interim and long-term PM2.5 targets.

The National Air Quality Strategy, due to be published in 2023, will provide more information on local authorities' responsibilities to work towards these new targets and reduce PM2.5 in their areas. The Road to Zero (DfT. The Road to Zero: Next steps towards cleaner road transport and delivering our Industrial Strategy, July 2018) details the approach to reduce exhaust emissions from road transport through a number of mechanisms; this is extremely important given that the majority of Air Quality Management Areas (AQMAs) are designated due to elevated concentrations heavily influenced by transport emissions.

Since COVID-19 travel restrictions, some travel behaviours have continued. Transport, motorway-use, and tourism have shown recovery. It is a potential risk for city space and emission rates if the market favours larger more powerful cars and vans. We are aware that the vehicle fleet is becoming older, the average age of a car in the UK is ten years old and for many it is a financial challenge for (households and smaller businesses) to invest in nearly new vehicles with lower emission rates. That said supply of new vehicles and parts has improved compared with twelve months ago. Electric has a larger share of new car and van market.

The council has consulted on the Local Transport Plan, Local Cycling and Walking Infrastructure Plan and the Air Quality Action Plan. One of the findings is that three-quarters of respondents (mostly local residence) ranked reducing pollution and improving air quality as one of their highest priorities.

 

Conclusions and priorities

Diffusion Tube 2022 

Road number Diffusion Tube ID Year sampling started at site   Site name or street NO2 Bias Adjusted (0.93) and Annualised Distance Corrected to Exposure
A270 E07-2019 Lewes Road north of Elm Grove 46.3
A270 C26-2022 New England Road under the bridge 44.2
A270 E08-1996 Lewes Road near Inverness Road 43.7
A23 C18-2010 Oxford Street London Road 42.8
LTN2-2022 Lower Elm Grove near Lewes Road 42.0
A270 C25-2010 New England West of Argyle Road 41.5
B2066 C11-2007 North Street Central 41.5
A23 E16-2015 Grand Parade Middle 40.7
B2066 C11-2012 North Street East of Clock Tower 40.5
A270 C24-2015 New England Road Elder Place 40.4
A259 W17-2009 Wellington Road Church Road 39.8
A23 C18-2019 London Road Brunswick Row 39.5
A270 W05-2006 Old Shoreham Road Terrace and Hill 38.0
A23 E16-1996 Grand Parade North 37.8
A23 C17-2012 Cheapside 37.7
A23 C21-2005 Viaduct Terrace 37.5
A23 E17-2003 Grand Parade South 36.8
C-Link E02-2012 The Drove linked with South Street 35.9
C-Link E12-2022 Hollingdean Road 35.7
A259 W16-2020 Wellington Road East 35.6
B2066 C04-2010 Castle Square 34.9
A2010 C12-2010 Queens Road South of Church Street 34.8
A2010 W01-2005 Queens Road North 34.8
C-Link E17-2018 Edward Street South Side 34.7
A270 OSR15 Old Shoreham Road Railings North 34.6
A2010 W04-2006 Chatham Place 34.5
LTN12-2022 Richmond Parade  34.3
A2010 W03-2006 Terminus Road Terrace and Hill 34.1
B2066 C10-2012 North Street near Ship Street 34.1
A259 W19-2009 Trafalgar Road Portslade 33.4
A23 C20-2005 Ditchling Road Viaduct Terrace 33.3
A270 OSR13 Old Shoreham Road Brackenbury  33.3
B2199 C28-2010 Frederick Place, North Laine 33.3
A270 E14-2019 Lewes Road on Pelham Terrace 33.1
A270 E10-2015 Vogue Gyratory Island 32.9
A2023 W21-2010 Sackville Road Hove Park Tavern 32.8
A270 OSR1 Old Shoreham Road Benfield School 32.8
A23 C19-2021 Oxford Street Ditchling Road 32.7
A23 C16-2013 York Place 32.6
C-Link C13-2014 Lower Dyke Road  32.1
A23 C02-2022 Old Steine West 31.6
LTN9-2022 Egremont Place Middle 31.6
LTN13-2022 Lower Southover Street 31.4
A23 E02-2009 Preston Road near Preston Drove 31.3
A23 C23-2005 London Road Rose Hill Terrace 31.2
A23 E06-2020 Beaconsfield Road 31.1
C-Link E17-2022 Edward Street North Side 30.8
A23 E01-2016 Preston Road near Preston Circus 30.4
B2123 E23-2010 Rottingdean High Street West 30.2
A270 E15-2012 Lewes Road on Coombe Terrace 29.9
A23 C15-2005 Gloucester Place 29.8
A259 E25-2018 Rottingdean Marine Drive 29.7
B2066 W11-2020 Western Road 29.6
B2123 E22-2009 Rottingdean High Street East 29.5
A23 C09-2005 Marlborough Place 29.3
A270 E40-2022 Hartington Road near Lewes Road 28.8
B2123 E30-2020 Rottingdean High Street Mid 28.7
LTN8-2022 Egremont Place Top 28.1
A23 C01-2020 Old Steine St James Street Corner 28.0
A270 OSR5 Old Shoreham Road Foredown Drive 28.0
B2066 W10-2006 Western Road near Sillwood Road 27.3
LTN1-2022 Lower Franklin Road 26.5
LTN4-2022 Roadside Elm Grove Primary School 25.7
C-Link E18-2021 Eastern Road near Sudley  Place 25.2
A270 OSR11 Old Shoreham Road Railings South 25.2
A270 OSR3 Old Shoreham Road Benfield Way 23.7
LTN14-2022 Middle Southover Street  23.6
A259 Kingsway4 Kingsway Traffic Light 22.9
A259 Kingsway2 Kingsway Sugardough 21.6
LTN10-2022 Carlton Hill next to school 21.3
A270 OSR7  Old Shoreham Road Library 21.2
LTN7-2022 Orchard Nursery Queen Park Road 20.9
A270 OSR9 Old Shoreham Rd Victoria Play Park 20.7
LTN11-2022 Morley Street 20.5
LTN5-2022 Upper Islingword Road 19.6
LTN6-2022 Top of Southover Street 19.4
C05-2012 Pavilion Gardens 18.6
A270 W14-2021 Old Shoreham Road Margery Road 18.3
LTN3-2022 Lower Islingword Road 18.3
A259 W18-2010 Vale Park 16.4
B2123  E31-2020 Rottingdean Vicarage Lane 16.0
E32-2020 Rottingdean Sea Front 14.5

The table shows the ranked order of diffusion tube results Brighton & Hove 2022 (highest at the top).

The top priorities to improve air quality and achieve air quality compliance in AQMA1: east to west A270 link that is Lewes Road and New England Road. For the A23; London Road, Grand Parade and Viaduct Road.

For the ULEZ B2166; North Street. For the A259.

AQMA3 A259 an A293 Portslade. Elsewhere the AQMA5 the Drove west of the railway.

All AQMAs would benefit from reduced emissions and further improvements in roadside air quality.

This will also help to improve air quality across the suburbs and citywide.

Local engagement and how to get involved

There was strong support for measure in the air quality action plan.

Everyone can do a little bit to help improve local air quality in the city or their neighbourhood. For example, the travel and heating choices we all make have an adverse or beneficial impact on the air everyone breathes:

Healthy travel choice hierarchy

  1. Active Travel – walking, cycling and roller booting
  2. Battery assisted bicycles
  3. Public Transport
  4. Electric car or van
  5. Battery vehicle with a range extender
  6. Petrol‐electric hybrid
  7. Small Petrol engine
  8. Diesel Hybrid
  9. Diesel with effective exhaust mitigation
  10. Diesel without exhaust mitigation

Healthy heating and cooling hierarchy

  1. Renewably generated electricity without combustion with passive house and grid balancing energy storage
  2. Electric grid or local microgeneration without emissions to air
  3. Biogas Fired Boilers (Ultralow NOx)
  4. Natural Gas Fired Boilers (Ultralow NOx)
  5. Combined Heat and Power gas combustion (emits NOx and CO2)
  6. Pellet Stoves (that emit low PM & NOx)
  7. Log Burning with risk of smoke
  8. Diesel Generators that emit smoke and NOx
  9. Heavy fuel oil with various emissions
  10. Coal with sulphurous emissions

Local responsibilities and commitment

This ASR was prepared by air quality officer in City Transport at Brighton & Hove Council. Support for air quality improvement comes from:

  • City Transport
  • Parking Strategy
  • Environmental Health
  • Environmental Enforcement
  • Public Health
  • City Clean and City Parks
  • Tourism
  • Planning
  • Fleet Management
  • Taxi Licencing
  • Trading Standards
  • Equalities
  • Performance
  • Communications

Following Air Quality Action Plan, our schedule is to approve 2022 appraised ASR by:

Assistant Director of City Transport and the Director of Public Health participate in the City’s Quality Programme Board (AQPB).

If you have any comments about air quality or the content of this report, send an email to: ProjectsTransport.Projects@brighton-hove.gov.uk

1. Local air quality management

This report provides an overview of air quality in Brighton and Hove City Council during 2022 It fulfils the requirements of Local Air Quality Management (LAQM) as set out in Part IV of the Environment Act (1995), as amended by the Environment Act (2021), and the relevant Policy and Technical Guidance documents.

The LAQM process places an obligation on all local authorities to regularly review and assess air quality in their areas, and to determine if air quality standards are likely to be achieved. Where an exceedance is considered likely the local authority must declare an Air Quality Management Area (AQMA) and prepare an Air Quality Action Plan (AQAP) setting out the measures it intends to put in place in order to achieve and maintain the objectives and the dates by which each measure will be carried out. This Annual Status Report (ASR) is an annual requirement showing the strategies employed by Brighton and Hove City Council to improve air quality and any progress that has been made.

The statutory air quality objectives applicable to LAQM in England are presented in Table E.1.

2. Actions to improve air quality

Air quality management areas

Air Quality Management Areas (AQMAs) are declared when there is an exceedance or likely exceedance of an air quality objective. After declaration, the authority should prepare an Air Quality Action Plan (AQAP) within 18 months. This can take longer when detailed consultation take place for associated Transport schemes and policies. The AQAP should specify how air quality targets will be achieved and surpassed and provide dates by which measures will be carried out can be found in Table 2.1. The table presents a description of six AQMA(s) that are currently designated within Brighton & Hove City Council Appendix D: Map(s) of Monitoring Locations and AQMAs provides maps of AQMA(s) and also the air quality monitoring locations in relation to the AQMA(s). The air quality objectives pertinent to the current AQMA designation(s) are as follows:

  • AQMA1: NO2 annual and hourly mean
  • AQMAs 2 to 6: NO2 annual mean

The next review of the AQMAs is due 2026 after 2025 annual data is available.

Table 2.1 – Declared Air Quality Management Areas

View and download Table 2.1.

Progress and impact of measures to address air quality in Brighton & Hove City Council

Defra’s appraisal of last year’s ASR acknowledged that the city council has six AQMAs in its jurisdiction. 54 tubes were reported for 2021, including Transport Projects this figure has risen to 82 for 2022. It was acknowledged that the ASR contains a list of measures to further improve air quality. Quality Assurance and quality control procedures have been applied for the diffusion tube bias adjustment (in 2021 a national factor in 2022 a local factor).  For 2021 and 2022 annualisation factor has been applied to sites with data capture below 75%, for example Liveable Neighbourhood tubes started from 1st July for the second half of the 2022 calendar year.

The DEFRA appraisal stated that there were no exceedances at a relevant receptor in 2021, the council subsequently pointed out that diffusion tube monitoring on Lewes Road is located at relevant building-line facades and has been reported as such since 1996. Past DEFRA appraisals have asked BHCC what monitoring occurs outside the designated AQMAs and this is set out clearly in the latest ASR. It is important that members understand that the AQMAs are declared for the highest pollution concentrations, monitoring happens in a variety of settings across the city.

Diffusion tubes along the Old Shoreham Road in Portslade (near AQMA3) started for the 2nd half of 2021 as a separate project.  These results have been annualised and reported in the 2022 ASR for the first time. The project is seeking to determine before and after a potential intervention (cycle lane) for this reason diffusion tubes are not positioned at relevant receptors and are at varying distances back from the carriageway. The monitoring will not continue. A resultant recommendation is to have a sensor at the boundary of the nearby primary school.

Brighton & Hove City Council has taken forward direct measures during the current reporting year of 2022 in pursuit of improving local air quality. Details of all measures completed, in progress or planned are set out in Table 2.2. More than twenty summarised measures are included within Table 2.2, with the type of measure and the progress Brighton & Hove City Council have made during the reporting year of 2022 presented. Where there have been, or continue to be, barriers restricting the implementation of the measure, these are also presented within Table 2.2.

More detail on these measures can be found in their respective Action Plans Local Transport Plan and Local Walking and Cycling Infrastructure Plan. Key completed measures are:

  • Exhaust upgrade of buses to ultra-low emission standard (euro-VI) started late 2022, with majority completed in Q1 or Q2 of 2023.
  • Partners are working with festivals, events and schools to raise awareness of sustainable travel, reducing emission and air quality.
  • Environmental Health has received a small amount of funding for smoke control in smoke control areas
  • Committee has agreed to environmental enforcement of persistent engine idling.

Brighton & Hove City Council expects the following measures to be completed over the course of the next reporting year:  Installation of new automatic monitoring stations and sensors for multiple pollutants to include oxides of nitrogen Particulate Matter PM10 and PM2.5. Sophisticated smart cameras to determine traffic flow and emission categories in and around the AQMAs.

Brighton & Hove City Council worked to implement these measures in partnership with the following stakeholders during 2022:

The principal challenges and barriers to implementation that Brighton & Hove City Council anticipates facing are stratifying procurement rules and spending grant funds within limited timescales and permissions for allocating revenue to progress projects.

The traffic dynamic is changing with fewer cars. Vans, minibuses and construction vehicles in some places are increasing. Older diesel vehicles have higher emission rates than petrol cars.  Further interventions will help achieve compliance everywhere prior to the next scheduled review of the AQMAs. Brighton and Hove City Council requires a nudge towards zero emission vehicles to complement the measures (including active travel) stated in Table 2.2 to achieve interim World Health Organisation guidelines. Considerable progress has been made with slow, fast and rapid electromotive charging facilities in the city.

Table 2.2 – Progress on funded measures to improve air quality 

View and download Table 2.2.

PM2.5 – Local authority approach to reducing emissions and/or concentrations

As detailed in Policy Guidance LAQM.PG22 (Chapter 8), local authorities are expected to work towards reducing emissions and/or concentrations of PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5µm or less). There is clear evidence that PM2.5 has a significant impact on human health, including premature mortality, allergic reactions, and cardiovascular diseases.

Whilst the tiny airborne particles are not defined by composition or toxicology, when inhaled they can be drawn deep into the respiratory tract, crossing over into the blood stream. PM2.5 is referred to in section 6.49 of the Joint Strategic Needs Assessment (JSNA) and is linked with the Public Health Outcomes Framework (PHOF).  PHOF sets out a vison for public health “to protect the nations health and improve the health of the poorest fastest”.

Brighton & Hove is taking the following measures to address PM2.5:

  • Leading the Sussex air quality partnership in upgrading the particulate monitoring network for PM2.5 and PM10, and other pollutants also to support real-time nodes across the city.  This is a Carbon Neutral Funded project supported by DEFRA, Lot 2 Awareness Raising and community engagement.
  • The phasing out of pre-euro-V emission standard buses (registered before October 2008) reduces particulate emissions from the frequent bus fleet.  Older buses remain for rail replacement services, driver training or heritage days.  City council, taxi and haulage fleets have also made progress in phasing our pre-euro 5 vehicles. 
  • Scheduled for 2023 >95% of regular bus services will surpass the ULEZ, euro-VI emission standards this will further reduce oxides of nitrogen that are precursors to the formation of nitrate particles in the atmosphere, and also help reduce N2O a potent greenhouse gas
  • The Council is in talks with University of London regarding improving true wheel alignment and tyre pressure to reduce tyre and road wear and particulate releases to air
  • Construction Environment Management Plans have progressively more stringent emissions standards for Non-Road Mobile Machinery that includes bulldozers, dumpers, and cranes, it recommended going forwards these standards are enforced especially on major projects, development areas, in or near AQMAs
  • Static diesel generators are discouraged for building and road work events, especially those in the city centre that are likely to last more than a few days
  • Members have requested that officers research the advantages of Smoke Control Areas (SCA).  Parliament approved amendments to the Environment Act (2021) sets out stronger powers for Local Authorities. In 2023 funding is allocated to Brighton & Hove, Environmental Health for enforcement of its existing SCAs. Officer training on smoke control has also been made available in 2023.
  • In the interests of communal health, the council issued a series of public statements discouraging indoor and outdoor domestic burning during the Covid-19 pandemic[iii].
  • Further press releases on reducing seasonal burning and a new pamphlet outlining the risks of air pollutants due to bonfires in the city.
  • To complement Defra’s automatic urban rural monitoring network (site at Preston Park) the City Council has for several years monitored PM2.5
  • Further guidance is available under the PM2.5 and Action Planning section of Technical Guidance LAQM.TG16 (Chapter 2).

During 2022 Preston Park recorded 30 days with moderate PM2.5 and North Street 8.

At Preston Park concentrations more than the WHO daily recommended level of 10 µg/m3 annual mean, DEFRA’s national target to be met by 2040.  Further details are given in Table A8. 2021 WHO recommendations and interims have been published since the writing of the 2020 ASR and these have been adopted in the 2022 AQAP.

3. Air quality monitoring data and comparison with air quality objectives and national compliance

This section sets out the monitoring undertaken up to and including 2022 by Brighton & Hove City Council and how it compares with the relevant air quality objectives. In addition, monitoring results are presented (in tables) for a five-year period between 2018 and 2022 to allow monitoring trends to be identified and discussed.  Most of the charts for each AQMA track long term trends since 2010 (or before) and compare the annual concentrations to the most locally monitored background.

Summary of Monitoring Undertaken

3.1.1 Automatic monitoring sites

Brighton &  Hove City Council (BHCC) undertook automatic (continuous) monitoring at two sites during 2022, with Lewes Road contract ceasing in March of that year. In addition, the park monitor in Preston Park is run by DEFRA as part of the UK Automatic Urban Rural Network (AURN). Monitoring is available from the University of Brighton You can now check air quality at their Falmer campus south of the A27 trunk road and the Brighton to Lewes railway. Table A.1 in Appendix A shows the details of the automatic monitoring sites. Local authorities do not have to report annually on the following pollutants: 1,3 butadiene, benzene, carbon monoxide and lead. The Sussex Air Network page presents automatic monitoring results for Brighton & Hove and across the county with Preston Park and other AURN results also available through data archive on the Defra website. The council is seeking to expand its automatic monitoring and real-time for 2024.

Maps showing the location of the monitoring sites are provided in Appendix D. Further details on how the monitors are calibrated and how the data has been adjusted are included in Appendix C.

3.1.2 Non-automatic monitoring sites

BHCC undertook non- automatic (i.e. passive) monitoring of NO2 at 82 sites during 2022. Table A.2 in Appendix A presents the details of the non-automatic sites.

Maps showing the location of the monitoring sites are provided in Appendix D. Further details on Quality Assurance/Quality Control (QA/QC) for the diffusion tubes, including bias adjustments and any other adjustments applied (for example, annualisation and/or distance correction), are included in Appendix C.

Individual pollutants

The air quality monitoring results presented in this section are, where relevant, adjusted for bias, annualisation (where the annual mean data capture is below 75% and greater than 25%), and distance correction. Further details on adjustments are provided in Appendix C.

3.1.3 Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)

Table A.3 and Table A.4 in Appendix A compare the ratified and adjusted monitored NO2 annual mean concentrations for the past 5 years with the UK air quality objective of 40µg/m3. Note that the concentration data presented represents the concentration at the location of the monitoring site, following the application of bias adjustment and annualisation, as required (i.e. the values are exclusive of any consideration to fall-off with distance adjustment).

For diffusion tubes, the full 2022 dataset of monthly mean values is provided in Appendix B. Note that the concentration data presented in Table B.1 includes distance corrected values, only where relevant.

Table A.5 in Appendix A compares the ratified continuous monitored NO2 hourly mean concentrations for the past five years with the air quality objective of 200µg/m3, not to be exceeded more than 18 times per year. For Lewes Road more than 18 hourly exceedance was last recorded by the automatic analyser in 2017, followed by a near miss in 2018 and no hours above 200µg/m3 from 2018 up to the end of monitoring at the site March 2022. 10 exceedances versus that standard of18 were recorded at the North Street automatic analyser in 2022. 

Annual mean NO2 greater than 60µg/m3, indicates that an exceedance of the 1-hour mean objective where that is monitored.  At North Street diffusion tube monitoring suggested this last hourly exceedance happened in 2016 with a near miss in 2017 and 2018.  Recorded concentrations have complied with this standard for the past four years. 

For London Road monitoring suggest hourly exceedance last occurred in 2019 with much lower concentrations since that time.  The widening of the footway may have helped to sperate distance between road traffic emissions and pedestrians and the bus fleet is cleaner since 2019.  

Outside of AQMA1 60µg/m3 has been recorded at the kerb of Old Shoreham Road, Portslade in 2022. This kerbside sample position on the railings is a few centremetres from the carriagway and is not a location where people will be present for the averaging period.  Its purpose is to check potnetial before and after should a cycle lane be added. The site is open and not in street canyon, DEFRA’s distnace correction tool indicates much lower concentrations on the foortway where monitoring continues.

Further improvement and monitoring is required to be certain that the hourly NO2 standard is complied with throughout Brighton & Hove. That said road traffic, combined heat and power and gas boilers contribute to short-term oxides of nitrogen. 

The annual average standard 40µg/m3 (without decimal place) continues to be exceeded at the following locations in designated AQMAs as follows:

  • Lewes Road AQMA1 A270
  • New England Road AQMA1A270
  • London Road AQMA1A23
  • North Street AQMA1 B20266
  • Grand Parade AQMA1A23
  • Wellington Road AQMA3 A259

 (> 36µg/m3 within 10%) of the UK NO2 standard is also recorded at Cheapside, Viaduct Terrace (continuation of Viaduct Road) Old Shoreham Road continued from New England Road all in AQMA1 and The Drove AQMA5 and Hollingdean Road connected to Lewes Road.

As the NO2 AQMA were amended late 2020, DEFRA guidance requests a review after five years of monitorng data. More stringent interim guidelines and targets are set out in the BHCC’s 2022 AQAP shared with DEFRA.

3.1.4 Particulate Matter (PM10)

Since 2015 Brighton & Hove has monitored PM2.5 instead of PM10.  The relatively course fraction of airborne particulate was more likely to comply with national standards. The preference for PM2.5 monitoring aligned more closely with broader public health outlook. As funding is now available the council is scheduled to monitor both PM10 (throat and upper respiratory impacts) and PM2.5 (influence on the blood stream when inhaled). We know that particulate levels are lower in the South Down National Park compared to the conurbation. The evidence to date suggests particles are not more concentrated at roadside and further work aims to better understand particulate levels across the city and county.  The aim is also to distinguish where local and regional emissions influence local air quality.

3.1.5 Particulate Matter (PM2.5)

Table A.8 in Appendix A presents the ratified and adjusted monitored PM2.5 annual mean concentrations for the past five years. Further improvement is required to certainly surpass 2010 WHO guidelines and work towards 2021 WHO guidelines for annual and daily averages and the interim targets set out in BHCC’s AQAP.

3.1.6 Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)

Sulphur Dioxide levels have been found to comply with national standards and world health guidelines across the Greater Brighton area. Reduced coal burning, ultralow sulphur petrol and diesel (2007) and fewer diesel trains have helped bring down levels of sulphurous gas and particles.  The University of Brighton received a £250,000 research fund for monitoring. Find results for SO2 and other pollutants. The monitoring station is in a field at Falmer (south of the A27 and Brighton to Lewes railway) and included in the summary appendix of Brighton & Hove automatic analysers.

The city council plans to introduce SO2 monitoring in AQMA1 (City Centre) and AQMA3 (set back from the A259 and harbour).  This can monitor progress in the reduction of marine emissions set out in the national air quality strategy.  Results can be compared to the Automatic Rural Network monitor at Lullington Health in the South Downs National Park.

Appendix A: Monitoring results

Tables A.1 to A.4

View and download the following tables:

  • Table A.1 – Details of automatic monitoring sites
  • Table A.2 – Details of non-automatic monitoring sites Nitrogen Dioxide Diffusion Tubes
  • Table A.3 – Annual Mean NO2 Monitoring Results: Automatic Monitoring (µg/m3)
  • Table A.4 – Annual Mean NO2 Monitoring Results: Non-Automatic Monitoring (µg/m3)

Notes for Table A.1 

  • 0m if the monitoring site is at a location of exposure (for example, installed on the façade of a residential property)
  • N/A if not applicable

Notes for Table A.2

  • 0m if the monitoring site is at a location of exposure (for example, installed on the façade of a residential property).
  • N/A if not applicable.
  • For 2022, B2066 C10-2012 is the only triplicate co-located site. OSR (Old Shoreham Road) and Kingsway temporary surveys are the average of duplicate tubes. 

Notes for Table A.3

Annualisation has been conducted where data capture is 19% to provide an indicative trend chart for BH6 that stated 2012 and ceased March 2022. Annualisation was not required at other automatic analysers.

Reported concentrations are those at the location of the monitoring site (annualised, as required), i.e. prior to any fall-off with distance correction

The annual mean concentrations are presented as µg/m3.

Exceedances of the NO2 annual mean objective of 40µg/m3 are shown in bold. The interim target set out in the AQAP is 30µg/m3.

All means have been “annualised” as per LAQM.TG22 if valid data capture for the full calendar year is less than 75%. See Appendix C for details.

Concentrations are those at the location of monitoring and not those following any fall-off with distance adjustment.

  • Data capture for the monitoring period, in cases where monitoring was only carried out for part of the year.
  • Data capture for the full calendar year (for example, if monitoring was carried out for 6 months, the maximum data capture for the full calendar year is 50%).

Notes for Table A.4

Annualisation has been conducted where data capture is <75% and >25% in line with LAQM.TG22

Diffusion tube data has been bias adjusted

Reported concentrations are those at the location of the monitoring site (bias adjusted and annualised, as required), i.e. prior to any fall-off with distance correction

The annual mean concentrations are presented as µg/m3.

Exceedances of the NO2 annual mean objective of 40µg/m3 are shown in bold.

NO2 annual means exceeding 60µg/m3, indicating a potential exceedance of the NO2 1-hour mean objective are shown in bold and underlined.

Means for diffusion tubes have been corrected for bias. All means have been “annualised” as per LAQM.TG22 if valid data capture for the full calendar year is less than 75%. See Appendix C for details.

Concentrations are those at the location of monitoring and not those following any fall-off with distance adjustment.

  • Data capture for the monitoring period, in cases where monitoring was only carried out for part of the year.
  • Data capture for the full calendar year (e.g. if monitoring was carried out for 6 months, the maximum data capture for the full calendar year is 50%).

Figure A.1 – Trends in Annual Mean NO2 Concentrations

Figure A.1 –AQMA1 A2010 Brighton Railway Station

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Trend graph in nitrogen dioxide in the vicinity of Brighton (actually) railway station indicates a substantial improvement between 2010 and 2020 (variation in the rate of pollution reduction). The AQAP target was met in 2020.  An increase is recorded in the past two years up to the end of 2022. Emission reductions are required to keep pollutant levels (NO2) below the AQAP target of 30 µg/m3. 

Figure A.1 –AQMA1 ULEZ Kerbside (above pedestrian pavement)

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Trend in monitored nitrogen dioxide levels at the kerbside (pedestrian pavement) next to North Street, in the Brighton & Hove bus ultra-low emission zone.  Monitoring suggested a small increase 2012 to 2014.  A substantial decrease from 2014 to 2020 and a small increase in the past two years up to the end of 2022. Nitrogen dioxide levels meet the national hourly standard since 2019. Further reduction in emissions required to ensure this remains the case. Reduction in emissions also required to meet the annual average standard where people spend time in accommodation set back from the road.

Figure A.1 –AQMA1 Frederick Place, North Laine

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Trend line in nitrogen dioxide levels at Frederick Place (close to North Laines with through traffic).  Diffusion tube records a reduction in pollutant levels from 2010 to 2020, with no recorded change since that time.  Requires a reduction in emissions to meet the AQAP target. 

Figure A.1 AQMA1 ULEZ B2066 roadside and background

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Trend graph for façade (set back at the building-line) nitrogen dioxide diffusion tubes in the Brighton & Hove bus ultra-low emission zone.  Showed evidence of an increase 2008 to 2013 and substantial improvement 2013 to 2020. Showed positive signs of meeting the national air quality standard of 40 µg/m3.  An increase over the past year since 2021. Requires a reduction in emissions to achieve AQAP targets throughout the travel corridor.

Figure A.1 –AQMA1 A23 Valley Gardens West Side

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Trend graph in nitrogen dioxide levels AQMA1 Marlborough, Gloucester, and York Places. Reduction in pollution levels 2010 to 2019 accelerated up to 2020 as general traffic switched to the other side of the gardens. Met AQAP target but shows an increase past two years since 2020.

Figure A.1 A23 AQMA1 Valley Gardens East Side

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Trend in nitrogen dioxide in AQMA1 Grand Parade slow improvement over several years with little change in two years since 2020.  Requires a reduction in emissions to achieve UK standards and AQAP targets. 

Figure A.1 –AQMA1 A23 London Road 

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Trend graph for nitrogen dioxide levels in AQMA1 London Road area (South of Preston Circus). Improvement monitored 2010 to 2020 (except 2014). Little change over the past two years. Requires a reduction in emissions to achieve AQAP targets. 

Figure A.1 – AQMA1 A23 via Preston Circus

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Trend graph for nitrogen dioxide levels in AQMA1 London Road area (South of Preston Circus). Improvement monitored 2010 to 2020 (except 2014). Little change over the past two years.  Requires a reduction in emissions to achieve AQAP targets.

Figure A.1 –AQMA1 A270 New England Road

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Trend graph for nitrogen dioxide levels in AQMA1 next to New England Road.  Improvement monitored 2010 to 2020. Little change over the past two to three years. Requires a reduction in emissions to achieve standards and guidelines.

Figure A.1 –AQMA1 A270 Lewes Road South

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Trend graph for nitrogen dioxide levels in AQMA1 next to Lewes Road. (South of Bear Road) Improvement monitored 2010 to 2020. No improvement in the last two years. Requires a reduction in emissions to achieve standards and guidelines. 

Figure A.1 – AQMA1 A270 Lewes Road Mid

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Trend graph for nitrogen dioxide levels in AQMA1 next to Lewes Road. (north of Gyratory) Improvement monitored 2010 to 2020. No improvement in the last two years. Requires a reduction in emissions to achieve standards and guidelines.

Figure A.1 –AQMA2 B2166 + A259 Rottingdean

""

Long term graph showing improvement in nitrogen dioxide levels AQMA2: 2010 to 2014 and 2017 to 2020. A small increase since 2021. 

Figure A.1 –AQMA3 A259 Wellington Road and A293 

""

Graph of nitrogen dioxide levels in AQMA3. Downward trend 2010 to 2021, followed by an Increase 2022. Needs reduction in emissions to achieve standards and guidelines. 

Figure A.1 –AQMA4 A2023 Sackville Road and A293

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Trend graph in nitrogen dioxide AQMA4.  Levels below the national air quality standard. Substantial improvement 2010 to 2021.  Achieved the AQAP target 2021. Small increase since 2020.. Major developments in the area,

Figure A.1 –AQMA5 A23 Preston Road and The Drove

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Trend graph in nitrogen dioxide AQMA5.  Improvement 2010 to 2014 and 2017 to 2021. No reduction since 2020.  Improvement required to stay below national standards and meet the local AQAP target.

Figure A.1 –AQMA6 Eastern Road Hospital with St James Street

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Road and St James Street except when construction traffic at the hospital was at its peak. Four years meeting the local AQAP target. Better air quality a health advantage for the infirmary. 

Table A.5 – 1-Hour mean NO2 monitoring results, number of 1-hour means > 200 µg/m3

View and download Table A.5 – 1-Hour Mean NO2 Monitoring Results, Number of 1-Hour Means > 200µg/m3.

Notes for Table A.5

Results are presented as the number of 1-hour periods where concentrations greater than 200µg/m3 have been recorded.

Exceedances of the NO2 1-hour mean objective (200µg/m3 not to be exceeded more than 18 times/year) are shown in bold.

If the period of valid data is less than 85%, the 99.8th percentile of 1-hour means is provided in brackets.

  • Data capture for the monitoring period, in cases where monitoring was only carried out for part of the year.
  • Data capture for the full calendar year (e.g. if monitoring was carried out for 6 months, the maximum data capture for the full calendar year is 50%).

Figure A.2 – Trends in number of NO2 1-hour means > 200µg/m3

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Chart of the number of hours in the calendar years: 2012 to 2022 at more than 200 micrograms per cubic meter at the North Street air monitoring station.

Table A.8 – Annual mean PM2.5 monitoring results (µg/m3)

View and download Table A.8 – Annual Mean PM2.5 Monitoring Results (µg/m3).

Notes for Table A.8

Annualisation has been conducted where data capture is <75% and >25% in line with LAQM.TG22

Notes:

The annual mean concentrations are presented as µg/m3.

All means have been “annualised” as per LAQM.TG22 if valid data capture for the full calendar year is less than 75%. See Appendix C for details.

  • Data capture for the monitoring period, in cases where monitoring was only carried out for part of the year.
  • Data capture for the full calendar year (e.g. if monitoring was carried out for 6 months, the maximum data capture for the full calendar year is 50%).
  • Note the Preston Park particulate analyser switched from a Partisol to a BAM which is a different monitoring method to the TEOM at North Street and the DOAS at the University of Brighton. The new monitoring projects being taken forward will need to use approved referenced methods for monitoring particles so direct network comparisons can be made. The annual percentage of data capture for Preston Park has improved since monitoring started so caution should be made when comparing years in the trend line.

Figure A.5 – Indicative trends in annual mean PM2.5 concentrations (various monitoring methods)

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Indicative trend graph 2015 to 2022 annual average fine particulate in outdoor air. Concentrations typically recorded between 6 and 11 micrograms per cubic meter. Preston Park, Lewes Road and North Street.  

Appendix B: Full monthly diffusion tube results for 2022

Table B.1 - NO2 2022 diffusion tube results (µg/m3)

View and download Table B.1 - NO2 2022 diffusion tube results (µg/m3).

Notes for Table B.1

All erroneous data has been removed from the NO2 diffusion tube dataset presented in Table B.1

Annualisation has been conducted where data capture is <75% and >25% in line with LAQM.TG22

Local bias adjustment factor used

National bias adjustment factor used

Where applicable, data has been distance corrected for relevant exposure in the final column

Brighton and Hove City Council confirm that all 2022 diffusion tube data has been uploaded to the Diffusion Tube Data Entry System

Exceedances of the NO2 annual mean objective of 40µg/m3 are shown in bold.

NO2 annual means exceeding 60µg/m3, indicating a potential exceedance of the NO2 1-hour mean objective are shown in bold and underlined.

See Appendix C for details on bias adjustment and annualisation.

Appendix C: Supporting technical information / air quality monitoring data QA/QC

New or changed sources identified Within Brighton & Hove During 2022

This is discussed in the public facing summary at the beginning of the report. In some places there has been an increase in the number of vehicles since the travel restriction associated with the pandemic 2020 and the legacy of travel changes into 2021. Whilst the market share of ultra-low and zero vehicles has increased slightly, on average vehicles are older and larger. Buildings flanking Hollingdean Road (part of AQMA1) have been demolished and replaced with larger ones set further back from the carriageway.

Additional air quality works undertaken Brighton & Hove During 2022

During 2021 twenty-five additional double decker buses have been exhaust upgraded. A further 52 were upgraded from late 2022 and completed in the first half of 2023. Various Transport and Parking consultation have been carried out. A new Air Quality Action Plan has been prepared has received positive feedback from public consultation and the Air Quality Action Plan was approved by committee.

QA/QC of diffusion tube monitoring

  • Gradko International diffusion tubes have been consistently used for many years by Sussex Local Authorities using the 20% TEA in water (method)
  • 2022 diffusion tube monitoring covered twelve periods for the calendar year. Exposure periods typically alternated between four- and five-weeks.
  • Annualisation has been carried out for LN tubes that started in the second half of the year and 2/82 that missed four periods
  • Accreditation of the diffusion tube monitoring method consistent with previous years is as follows:
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Chart of nitrogen dioxide laboratory proficiency 2022 showing accurate agreement between measured and assigned value.

Diffusion tube annualisation

Table C.1  – Annualisation summary (concentrations presented in µg/m3)

Site ID

Annualisation Factor Preston Park

Annualisation Factor Lullington Health

Average Annualisation Factor

Raw Data Annual Mean

Annualised Annual Mean

B2066 C11-2012

0.9854

0.9732

0.9793

59.4

58.1

A259 E25-2018

1.0142

0.9314

0.9728

32.8

31.9

LTN1-2022

1.0490

1.1157

1.0824

26.4

28.5

LTN2-2022

1.1915

1.3413

1.2664

35.7

45.2

LTN3-2022

1.0490

1.1157

1.0824

18.1

19.6

LTN4-2022

1.0490

1.1157

1.0824

25.5

27.6

LTN5-2022

1.0490

1.1157

1.0824

19.5

21.1

LTN6-2022

1.0490

1.1157

1.0824

19.2

20.8

LTN7-2022

1.0490

1.1157

1.0824

20.8

22.5

LTN8-2022

1.0490

1.1157

1.0824

27.9

30.2

LTN9-2022

1.0490

1.1157

1.0824

31.4

34.0

LTN10-2022

1.0444

1.0608

1.0526

21.8

22.9

LTN11-2022

1.0490

1.1157

1.0824

20.3

22.0

LTN12-2022

1.0490

1.1157

1.0824

34.1

36.9

LTN13-2022

0.9926

1.0947

1.0436

32.3

33.8

LTN14-2022

0.9926

1.0947

1.0436

24.3

25.4

Diffusion tube bias adjustment factors

The diffusion tube data presented within the 2022 ASR have been corrected for bias using an adjustment factor. Bias represents the overall tendency of the diffusion tubes to under or over-read relative to the reference chemiluminescence analyser. LAQM.TG22 provides guidance about the application of a bias adjustment factor to correct diffusion tube monitoring. Triplicate co-location studies can be used to determine a local bias factor based on the comparison of diffusion tube results with data taken from NOx/NO2 continuous analysers. Alternatively, the national database of diffusion tube co-location surveys provides bias factors for the relevant laboratory and preparation method.

Brighton and Hove City Council have applied a local bias adjustment factor of 0.93 to the 2002 monitoring data. A summary of bias adjustment factors used by Brighton and Hove City Council over the past five years is presented in Table C.2. The March version of the national bias correction included some Sussex factors that had not been verified so could not be used.

Table C.2 – Bias Adjustment Factor

Monitoring year

Local or national

If national, version of national spreadsheet

Adjustment factor

2022

Local

N/A

0.93

2021

National

03/21

0.84

2020

National

06/20

0.92

2019

National

06/19

0.93

2018

National

06/18

0.93

Table C.3 – Local Bias Adjustment Calculation 

 

Local bias adjustment input 1

Periods used to calculate bias

12

Bias Factor A

0.93 (0.85 - 1.03)

Bias Factor B

7%   (-2% - 17%)

Diffusion Tube Mean (µg/m3)

7

Mean CV (Precision)

36.7

Automatic Mean (µg/m3)

4.7%

Data Capture

 

Adjusted Tube Mean (µg/m3)

34.1

Notes for Table C.3

A single local bias adjustment factor has been used to bias adjust the 2022 diffusion tube results, the site is within the ULEZ and AQMA and is therefore a representative location for the local tubes and has excellent data capture for 2022.

NO2 Fall-off with distance from the road

Wherever possible, monitoring locations are representative of exposure. However, where this is not possible, the NO2 concentration at the nearest location relevant for exposure has been estimated using the Diffusion Tube Data Processing Tool/NO2 fall-off with distance calculator available on the LAQM Support website. Where appropriate, non-automatic annual mean NO2 concentrations corrected for distance are presented in Table B.1.

Table C.4 – NO2 Fall off With Distance Calculations (concentrations presented in µg/m3)

Site ID

Distance (m): Monitoring site to kerb

Distance (m): Receptor to kerb

Monitored concentration (Annualised and bias adjusted

Background concentration

Concentration predicted at receptor

Comments

B2066 C11-2012

1.0

6.0

54.1

16.6

40.5

Predicted concentration at Receptor above AQS objective.

A23 C18-2019

4.0

5.0

41.0

16.6

39.5

Predicted concentration at Receptor within 10% the AQS objective.

A270 C26-2022

3.0

4.5

47.9

12.0

44.2

Predicted concentration at Receptor above AQS objective.

A270 OSR13

2.5

4.5

36.5

14.6

33.3

 

A270 OSR15

0.2

8.7

61.5

14.6

34.6

 

QA/QC of Automatic monitoring

This is provided in the annual report on the Sussex monitoring network provided by Bureau Veritas.

PM10 and PM2.5 Monitoring adjustment not applied

Automatic monitoring annualisation

Most monitoring locations within Brighton & Hove recorded data capture of greater than 75% therefore it was not required to annualise. For the long term trend chart, indicatively an annualization factor of 0.767 (derived from Preston Park AURN) was applied to BH6, Lewes Road data.

NO2 Fall-off with distance from the road

Wherever possible, monitoring locations are representative of exposure. However, where this is not possible, the NO2 concentration at the nearest location relevant for exposure has been estimated using the NO2 fall-off with distance calculator available on the LAQM Support website. Where appropriate, non-automatic annual mean NO2 concentrations corrected for distance are presented in Table B.1.

Appendix D: Map(s) of monitoring locations and AQMAs

Figure D.1 –Brighton & Hove boundary ultra-low emission zone automatic monitoring stations NOx and PM2.5

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Council boundary with automatic monitoring stations for oxides of nitrogen and particulate and the bus ultra-low emission zone a 1800m strip including North Street and Western Road that takes 95% of schedule bus services in the city.

Figure D.1 –AQMA1 2020 designation 

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A map of Brighton City Centre AQMA1 amended in 2020.

Figure D.1 –AQMA1 city centre B2066 ULEZ A2010 Brighton Rail Station, A23 Valley Gardens London Road Viaduct Road and Ditchling Road A270 New England Road with Preston Circus diffusion tubes with 2022 concentrations 

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A map of Brighton City Centre with air quality management area and 2022 nitrogen dioxide monitoring points, with results in micrograms per cubic meter.

Figure D.1 –AQMA1 A270 Lewes Road and Hollingdean Road diffusion tubes with 2022 concentrations 

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A map of Lewes Road and Hollingdean Road with air quality management area and 2022 nitrogen dioxide monitoring points, with results in micrograms per cubic meter.

Figure D.1 –AQMA2 A259 and B2123 Rottingdean diffusion tubes with 2022 concentrations

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A map of Rottingdean with air quality management area and six 2022 nitrogen dioxide monitoring points, with results in micrograms per cubic meter.

Figure D.1 –AQMA3 A259 and A293 Portslade diffusion tubes with 2022 concentrations

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A map of Wellington Road Trafalgar Road and Old Shoreham Road west of  Portslade train station with air quality management area and 2022 nitrogen dioxide monitoring points, with results in micrograms per cubic meter.

Figure D.1 –AQMA4 A2023 Diffusion Tube with 2022 Concentrations

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A map of Sackville Road and Old Shoreham Road north west of Hove train station with air quality management area and 2022 nitrogen dioxide monitoring points, with results in micrograms per cubic meter.

Figure D.1 – AQMA5 A23 Preston Road The Drove Diffusion Tubes with 2022 Concentrations

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A map of Preston Road and The Drove south of Preston Park train station with air quality management areas and 2022 nitrogen dioxide monitoring points, with results in micrograms per cubic meter.

Figure D.1 –AQMA6 Eastern Road Hospital and LN Diffusion Tubes with 2022 Concentrations

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A map of East Brighton with air quality management areas and 2022 nitrogen dioxide monitoring points, with results in micrograms per cubic meter.

Appendix E: Summary of air quality objectives in England

The 1995 Environment Act objectives became binding standards in 2010. The City Council set out more ambitious targets in its 2022 Air Quality Action Plan approved by committee.

Table E.1 – Air quality objectives in England

View Air quality objectives in England either as a table or as listed text below the table.

Pollutant

Air Quality Objective: Concentration

Air Quality Objective: Measured as

Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)

200µg/m3 not to be exceeded more than 18 times a year

1-hour mean

Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)

40µg/m3

Annual mean

Particulate Matter (PM10)

50µg/m3, not to be exceeded more than 35 times a year

24-hour mean

Particulate Matter (PM10)

40µg/m3

Annual mean

Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)

350µg/m3, not to be exceeded more than 24 times a year

1-hour mean

Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)

125µg/m3, not to be exceeded more than 3 times a year

24-hour mean

Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)

266µg/m3, not to be exceeded more than 35 times a year

15-minute mean

The units are in microgrammes of pollutant per cubic metre of air (μg/m3).

Listed below is the: 

  • Pollutant
  • Air Quality objective concentration
  • Air Quality objective

Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)

  • 200 μg/m3 not to be exceeded more than 18 times a year
  • 1-hour mean

Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)

  • 40 μg/m3
  • Annual mean

Particulate Matter (PM10)

  • 50 μg/m3, not to be exceeded more than 35 times a year
  • 24-hour mean

Particulate Matter (PM10)

  • 40 μg/m3
  • Annual mean

Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)

  • 350 μg/m3, not to be exceeded more than 24 times a year
  • 1-hour mean

Sulphur Dioxide (SO2)

  • 125 μg/m3, not to be exceeded more than 3 times a year
  • 24-hour mean

Sulphur Dioxide (SO2/)

  • 266 μg/m3, not to be exceeded more than 35 times a year
  • 15-minute mean

Glossary of terms

Abbreviation

Description

ADMS-Urban

Atmospheric Dispersion Model System

AQAP

Air Quality Action Plan - A detailed description of measures, outcomes, achievement dates and implementation methods, showing how the local authority intends to achieve air quality limit values’

AQMA

Air Quality Management Area – An area where air pollutant concentrations exceed / are likely to exceed the relevant air quality objectives. AQMAs are declared for specific pollutants and objectives

ASR

Air Quality Annual Status Report

ATC

Automatic Traffic Counter

AURN

UK Automatic Urban Rural air Monitoring Network

CAZ

Clean Air Zone

CEMP

Construction Environment Management Plans

COMEAP

Committee on the Medical Effects of Air Pollutants

Defra

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs

DfT

Department for Transport

DMRB

Design Manual for Roads and Bridges – Air quality screening tool produced by Highways England

EFT

Emission Factor Toolkit

EMIT

Atmospheric Emissions Inventory Toolkit

EU

European Union

HGV

Heavy Goods Vehicle

LAQM

Local Air Quality Management

LAQM (TG)16

LAQM Technical Guidance 2016

LAQM (PG)16

LAQM Policy Guidance 2016

LGV

Light Goods Vehicle

NRMM

Non Road Mobile Machinery

NAEI

National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory

NO2

Nitrogen Dioxide

NOx

Oxides of Nitrogen usually an emission rather than an outdoor concentration

NPL

National Physical Laboratory

PHE

Public Health England

PHOF

Public Health Outcomes Framework

PM10

Airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10µm (micrometres or microns) or less

PM2.5

Airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5µm or less

QA/QC

Quality Assurance and Quality Control

SCA

Smoke Control Zone

Section 106

Section 106 Planning Agreement Under Town and Country Planning Act

SO2

Sulphur Dioxide

ULEZ

Ultralow Emissions Zone

References